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Rivers of all ages

2022-06-27 11:35:42Reading notes

Rivers of all ages , Chinese Yellow River , Young as a dragon ; The Yangtze River is graceful , colorful . Two mother rivers , One south one North , Irrigated most of China's territory . Chinese culture is like a river , For thousands of years , There has been no interruption of the historical heritage . You can't see the Yellow River coming up , Don't you see the rolling Yangtze River flowing east . Who are we ? Where are we from ? Where are we going ? Do not understand 、 Don't go into it , You can't easily get the answer to the question , Unless …… This book does not stick to the traditional view of history , Take the world as the stage , Tell you the whole story of Chinese culture !

 Rivers of all ages

Rivers of all ages value

Chinese Yellow River , Young as a dragon ; The Yangtze River is graceful , colorful . Two mother rivers , One south one North , Irrigated most of China's territory . Chinese culture is like a river , For thousands of years , There has been no interruption of the historical heritage .

You can't see the Yellow River coming up , Don't you see the rolling Yangtze River flowing east . Who are we ? Where are we from ? Where are we going ? Do not understand 、 Don't go into it , You can't easily get the answer to the question , Unless ……

This book does not stick to the traditional view of history , Take the world as the stage , Tell you the whole story of Chinese culture !

Rivers of all ages Author's brief introduction

Xu Zhuyun

1930 Born in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province ,1962 He received a doctorate degree from the University of Chicago , He has taught at Taiwan University 、 University of Pittsburgh . A historical leader who has learned both Chinese and Western history , Proficient in ancient Chinese history 、 History of culture 、 Social history , Be familiar with western history and its theories and thoughts , He is good at using the perspectives and methods of different disciplines to study history , Especially the history and culture of China ; Not confined to the study , Always think about the world , Care about the development and trend of Chinese culture .

fine Hua Explain read

The following is 《 Rivers of all ages 》 An interpretation of the essence of a Book , For the majority of book friends to learn reference , Welcome to share , It cannot be used for commercial purposes without permission .

Rivers of all ages Text

 Rivers of all ages

As history progresses , The content of Chinese culture and the space it occupies are constantly changing .

Every stage ,“ China ” Must face other people and the culture they create , Through constant contact and change . In the course of these interactions , Chinese culture is growing , And occupy a larger geographical space .

therefore , This book follows Liang rengong ( Liang qichao ) Point of view , Regard the Chinese cultural circle as a process of continuous expansion , From China in the Central Plains , China expanded into China , China in East Asia , China in Asia , Even China in the world , And take this as the title of each chapter .

One 、 Chinese geography and archaeology

China is located in the southeast of Eurasia , To the north are deserts and grasslands , To the West are high mountains and plateaus , Facing the sea to the East and South . Such unique geomorphic features , Make the world of China look to the southeast . However , Geography in the history of Chinese culture , Not just looking in one direction , But each region in all directions has its own pattern .

 

1. Of Chinese geography 7 Three geomorphic features

 Rivers of all ages

● Take the desert 、 Mainly grassland Mongolia . Herdsmen on the grassland live by water and grass .

● To the forest 、 Mainly mountainous The northeast . The people there live by fishing and hunting .

● The Loess Plateau 、 Mainly on the Loess plain The middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River . It belongs to the agricultural zone , The land needs to be cultivated repeatedly as mature land , therefore , The residents here have a strong sense of relocation .

● lakes 、 There are many rivers The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River . It also belongs to the agricultural zone , The land fertile 、 There is plenty of food , The residents' mentality is more lively .

● From north to south Coastal areas and islands . Southeast coastal area , Since the middle ages , The town is densely covered , A large population , Rich life , It is the entrance and exit of China's sea lanes .

● There are mountains 、 Basins and longitudinal valleys Southwest . Due to different terrain , The residents here have very different lifestyles .

● All over the mountains and plateaus The northwest . Since the opening of the Silk Road in the western regions in the Han Dynasty , China passes through this northwest entrance , And Central Asia 、 Middle East and European contacts , It has never stopped for twothousand years .

2. The dividing line between the old and the new stone age

Where do the Chinese come from ? Chinese archaeologists generally believe that , Ancient people in China , In terms of physical characteristics , It has a fairly consistent inheritance pedigree , It was evolved from the early local Homo sapiens . However , Emerging in recent years “ From Africa ” Do not agree with this view , They argue that the only origin of modern man is in Africa . so far , Archaeological data are not enough to prove or disprove the above two theories , So this question is in doubt .

It's often said now “ Neolithic ” And “ Paleolithic ” Time , The dividing line is the way in which people produce food and make a living . Collect food from the Paleolithic age , To the Neolithic Age to produce food , People no longer have to look around for edible animals and plants . Since the development of agriculture and animal husbandry , When life is secure , The people settled in one place to a considerable extent , I also have spare power to inspire mental activities .

 

3. Legends and ethnic groups are separated and combined

Settle down and have the strength to inspire mental activities , The lifestyle of people everywhere , It gradually has certain characteristics , This is culture . Between different cultural groups , Conflict due to competition , There is also communication through contact . They are fused , Form a broad cultural circle covering the region .

Take the clues provided by myths and legends as an example :

In the legend of the Yellow Emperor , The battlefield of two important battles between Zhuolu and Hanquan , They are all in the north of Hebei today , It is located in the overlapping area of agriculture and animal husbandry . In history , Advance and retreat of agriculture and animal husbandry , That is to say, it moves along this line , Yes, it is 、 Huang Liangbu , They are all in Hebei . Archaeologist guodashun thinks , inflammation 、 Huang's contact and confrontation , Reflect the long-term competition between Yangshao culture and Hongshan Culture , The victorious Yellow Emperor moved into the agricultural area , Instead, plant five grains .

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Two 、 The dawn of culture

From Shang to Zhou , The Chinese civilization system is gradually becoming clear and taking shape . what's more , The ideological system of Chinese civilization , That is, Confucianism in the north and Taoism in the Yangtze River Valley , The two interact , Form the core of Chinese style thought . Many concepts about the meaning of life and ultimate concern , It is clearly defined here .

 

1. The historical era began in the Shang Dynasty

since 1928 Since the excavation of Yin Ruins in Anyang in , A large number of Shang Dynasty oracle bones, inscriptions and bronze wares were unearthed , This confirms the records of yin and Shang Dynasties in traditional history . From prehistoric culture into the historical era, there are two important characteristics :a. The appearance of words ;b. The establishment of kingship . Yin Shang just met these two conditions , The historical times mentioned in this book , When it begins with “ merchant ”, Instead of “ In the summer ”.

Exemplification 1: Yin Shang mastered the writing system

The six principles of Chinese characters : Pictograph 、 Pictophonetics 、 Tell the truth 、 knowing 、 Borrow 、 Transfer notes , Most of them have been found in the inscriptions of yin and Shang Dynasties . The inscriptions on the bronze wares of the Shang Dynasty , It is ceremonial , It is more complicated than divination . Words used in Shang Dynasty , Not only mature , And with the Evolution Pedigree of later Chinese characters , It can be restored step by step . With this advantage , Business culture has become the mainstream of ancient Chinese culture .

Exemplification 2: The widespread use of bronzes

Bronze castings are sharp and brittle , It may not be able to improve the production level , But it can be used to make weapons to improve their lethality . at that time , Only a few people monopolize this effective weapon , So as to hijack the community , Form the concentration of resources and the differentiation of communities . thus it can be seen , The Shang Dynasty mastered bronze technology , It has certain relevance with the formation of the state .

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2. Zhou people “ Destiny ” view

B.c. 11 century , In a Zhou state in Guanzhong, Shaanxi Province , Defeated the powerful Shang Dynasty , Instead, he became the master of China . The cultural level of businessmen at that time , Non Zhou people can see their necks and backs .《 ministers 》 Several early Zhou literatures in , Review the reasons for this historical development everywhere . Last , Zhou people recognized “ Destiny prevails , But virtue is pro ” Idea , Ascribe the loss of the country to the corruption of the merchants' morality . this “ Destiny ” view , It can be extended to two points :

First of all , The ruler's governance must conform to certain moral standards ;

second , The power of transcendence , That is, heaven , It has the power to supervise and judge the human order .

 

3. The historical mission accomplished in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period

In BC 771 year , The fall of the Western Zhou Dynasty , Pingwang moved east , Number is “ Eastern Zhou Dynasty ”. From then on, the Qin Empire was unified , China has gone through a transformation period of more than 500 years . This period of history , Traditionally, it is divided into the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period , It is called the axial age of Chinese culture , And completed several important historical missions :

● Transformation of stratum

The Eastern Zhou Dynasty is only a nominal continuation of the Western Zhou Dynasty , It has long been impossible to control the huge feudal network in the East . The social changes of more than 200 years in the spring and Autumn period , Reorganized the order of the original feudal system . The lost aristocracy represented by Confucius , Then spread the upper culture to the middle and lower classes of society .

● Thought systems take shape

The Chinese ideological system formed since the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period , There are two parallel threads . One is the Confucian centered human order , The first is the natural order centered on Yin-Yang and five behaviors . These two systems are combined into a complex system , Later generations of China called “ Nature and humanity ” We cannot get rid of these historical sources .

● The rise of the South

China is divided into North and south , Qinling Huaihe River line , It divides the Yellow River and the Yangtze River , The ecological environment of the north and the south is quite different . The rise of southern power , It started with the founding of the state of Chu . It not only integrates the river 、 The ethnic groups between Han , It also extends northward , Swallow up the feudal states of Zhou people in Han and Huaishang .

● Make up the household Qi min

After the collapse of the feudal system , Reorganize the state order , The common people were separated from the feudal bondage into individuals , But as a person , Integration into national organizations . From the Warring States period to today , The system of making up households for the people , In fact, not much has changed .

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3、 ... and 、 China's China

The system of the Qin and Han Dynasties , Established “ The world ” system , Because of the stability of the universal empire , After repeated conflicts and confrontations with the nomads in the North , It can continue without disintegration . meanwhile , New Buddhism challenges the Confucian and Taoist systems , This foreign belief is finally integrated into Chinese civilization .

 

1. The world

Qinshihuang regarded himself as the co owner of the six harmonies , The system in the early Han Dynasty , Inherited the Qin system , After four generations of recuperation , To the time of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty , The Han Dynasty defined China as a universal country in all aspects .

The so-called world countries , That is to say, the whole human world was regarded as one in the concept at that time , From center to place , Only a sovereign mandate , There is no division of sovereignty .

Between countries under heaven and sovereign countries , The difference is that the former often has areas of vague sovereignty , Its systematic structure began in the Han Dynasty . The heads of border counties are often Aboriginal leaders ; Western countries , Only the urban protection supervisor , The Southwest Barbarians and the Huns , There are so-called “ Return to justice ” The Royal chieftain of . This system , It is the Jimi Prefecture capital of the Tang Dynasty , Chieftains of the Ming and Qing Dynasties .

 

2. The Han Dynasty integrated the thought of the pre Qin Dynasty

General history holds that , The Qin Dynasty paid special attention to Legalists , The Han Dynasty only respected Confucianism , However , The author thinks that if we think from another angle , The Qin and Han dynasties actually experienced an overall integration ; Pre Qin School of thought , Like a hundred rivers flowing into the sea , Finally integrated into the ideological model of Chinese culture .

《 Her experience during the spring and autumn 》 And 《 Huainan zi 》, Two attempts to integrate work . And Dong Zhongshu's theoretical structure of heaven man induction , Then it integrates Confucianism 、 Avenue 、 Law 、 Yin Yang and five behaviors are huge and complex systems , It is to synthesize the pre Qin schools , A comprehensive theory . In this system , Celestial bodies move , The seasons change , Human ethics , Government organizations , Even physical and psychological , They are one system after another .

Dong Zhongshu's view of the universe , It had a profound impact on the academic and political affairs of the Western Han Dynasty . The Confucian School of modern literature hopes to master the ancient and modern knowledge of heaven and earth , And the power of this knowledge , There should be a generation of saints ( Confucius ) Speaking is 、 The ability and responsibility to plan for others . Their classics , It's not just Confucian scriptures , And made many apocalyptic predictions , The so-called “ Augury ”, With the auxiliary wing Scripture .

Western han dynasty , The wind is getting worse , Wang Mang took the opportunity to usurp the throne , here , Those who oppose Wang Mang , Unexpectedly, they also continue to establish the legitimacy of their own troops with Chenwei .

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3. Buddhism was introduced into China

Buddhism entered China , It is a great event in the history of Chinese culture . Indian Buddhism has entered China , So that China not only has religion , And there are two religions : Foreign Buddhism , Local Taoism .

When did Buddhism enter China , There is no final conclusion so far . In traditional historical materials , The time of Emperor Han and Ming , Buddhism is recorded : The Ming emperor had a dream of golden statues , Among the ministers, the Buddha statue may be the answer . This story reflects that people at that time had a good understanding of Buddhism , Therefore, the author believes that Buddhism entered China before the Eastern Han Dynasty .

The rise of metaphysics in the Han Dynasty , It has laid a foundation for Buddhism to enter China : A Buddhist doctrine , It turns out that the discussion of phenomena is real and illusory 、 Whether the body has , The topic of ultimate concern in life ; The two words of metaphysics are suitable for Buddhism , Express Buddhist thoughts in Chinese , That is, the so-called “ Case meaning ”.

 

4. A comparison between the Qin and Han Dynasties and the Roman Empire

The starting point of the silk road is China , The end is in Rome , The Qin and Han Dynasties and the Roman Empire faced each other from east to west , Are unprecedented empires in history . Between two great empires , Although there is no direct contact , But indirectly know that there is such a big country in the distance , a vast territory with a large population , The culture is brilliant .

However , The Great Empire where the two great civilizations are located , The historical process of its rise and fall is very different :

● The expeditions of the two empires were different . Qin destroyed six kingdoms , The felling is very heavy ; The six kingdoms were destroyed , I haven't heard of the Qin army Garrisoning the six kingdoms . After the Han Dynasty destroyed the Qin Dynasty , The soldiers headed south , I haven't heard of guarding the former land of Qin . by comparison , The Roman Empire never lost the essence of force control .

● China 、 Differences between the two regions of Rome , When there was a system of counties in China , The central government has a governing mechanism , It is enough to rule the people without relying on the army . In contrast, Rome , The Mediterranean region is the world of Pan Greek culture , But the surrounding areas , Including today's Middle East and European continent , Political units in different regions have different organizational forms .

● In terms of culture , Chinese Confucianism is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people , Add visual characters to overcome the estrangement of dialects , So that China can maintain a fairly consistent cultural homogeneity , Political power can change , Cultural identity is enough to maintain the continuity of the community . Rome on the other side , Do not intend to establish the mainstream thought with the power of enlightenment , Local ancient cultures and their intellectuals , All go their own way .

● Economic level , China Road in Han Dynasty 、 Branch lines and river channels , Woven into a fairly fixed communication network , Closely connect the headquarters of China into an interdependent whole . Rome is not , Between regional networks , Can communicate with each other , No need to rely on a fixed transportation network , There is no need to rely on fixed resource supply and demand .

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Four 、 China in East Asia

At this stage , The inward migration of the four neighboring nationalities and the influence of foreign cultures , It has changed the face of ancient China , It also makes the cultural connotation of China more colorful . And this series of changes , Let the Chinese style clothing, food, housing and transportation have a new look , This laid the foundation for the way of life of later generations of Chinese people .

 

1. The decline of the order of Qin and Han Dynasties

In the Han Dynasty “ Filial piety ” Rule the world , Local forces are becoming stronger , Clan became the only social force that could restrain the autocratic monarchy of the Empire . Clans in the same area , With “ Filial piety ” The idea of maintaining its cohesion , And through marriage and friendship, it becomes an alliance of social forces . The Yellow turban started , It gives these powerful clans an excuse to organize armed forces . DongZhuo enters Luoyang , The center disintegrated , Local celebrities and giant rooms have raised their troops , Wind and cloud meeting , Thousands of miles to the party , In the late Han Dynasty, the separatist regime was formed .

however , The Chinese cultural order established in the Qin and Han Dynasties , It did not disappear with the collapse of the Eastern Han Dynasty . The Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasties and the northern and Southern Dynasties lasted for more than 300 years , It is the process of reforming this universal order . The order of Sui and Tang Dynasties is the continuation of the order of Qin and Han Dynasties , It is also the expansion of the order of the Qin and Han Dynasties .

 

2. The blending of Wu Hu Luanhua and Hu Han culture

The collapse of the order of the Qin and Han Dynasties , This has led to a great change in the distribution of various ethnic groups in East Asia .

The Huns who had harassed the Qin and Han Dynasties for hundreds of years , In the Eastern Han Dynasty , It is divided into two parts . The northern Huns were soon disbanded , One of them moved to Europe , To the horror of Rome . The southern Huns moved into the Chinese frontier fortress , Gradually Chinese .

Five random times , Xiongnu and Jie established the earliest Hu regime in northern China . Qiang 、 Di also established a strong political power , Fu and Qin almost unified northern China . The Xianbei nationality finally gained the upper hand in the five Hu , The Tuoba family established the Northern Wei Dynasty , Yu Wen and Gao split the Northern Wei Dynasty , Establish the Northern Zhou Dynasty 、 The Northern Qi Dynasty , The three are collectively called “ The Northern Dynasty ”, Split the five Hu and Sixteen Kingdoms , Together into a conquering Dynasty of northern China .

During this period , The Hu and Han ethnic groups merge with each other , There are repetitions from time to time , Overall, it is gradually acculturation into the new culture of the middle ancient north . The way of life of the Chinese in the Sui and Tang Dynasties , Therefore, it is mixed with a lot of Hu Culture and southern culture , It is quite different from the Chinese culture in the Qin and Han Dynasties .

 

3. The Tang Dynasty became the overlord of East Asia

The late Middle Ages , The Sui and Tang Dynasties unified China , China has gradually formed an Asian order with China as the center .

Zhenguan four years , The king of Siyi was honored as Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty “ Tianhan ”, This title is unprecedented , It symbolizes that China has mastered the absolute advantage on the grassland . at that time , There were three main types of external relations between the Tang Dynasty and its neighboring countries :

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A map of the Tang Dynasty

● Jimi state capital

When Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty subdued the eastern Turks , Set Xiang in the Turkic homeland 、 Two prefectures in the cloud . The Tang Dynasty set up Jimi Prefecture and Dudu Prefecture on the foreign lands subdued outside the border , Its chief is still the head of the tribe , And hereditary . This Jimi Prefecture is actually an autonomous unit , The central government of the Tang Dynasty only conferred the title of chief officer 、 The name of the position .

● Canonization system

The extended circle of the Tang Empire was some foreign countries that were canonized . North Korea 、 Japan 、 Goguryeo 、 Baiji 、 Silla and other Eastern countries , The relationship with the Tang Empire , Politically, it is a canonization system , Culturally, it imitates China .

● Relatively independent

Tubo 、 Between Nanzhao and Tang Dynasty , Another relationship , In the big circle of the Tang Empire, the independence is quite strong .

 

4. Localization of Buddhism , Taoism has gradually become a climate

Medieval times , The development of Buddhism , When it is gradually “ localization ” And finally complete the process of foreign culture transplantation .

In a nutshell , The first stage is the dialogue between foreign culture and Chinese culture , There is conflict, reconciliation and adaptation . The second stage is on the soil of Chinese culture , Buddhism that thrives into Chinese culture .4 Century time , Buddhism has taken root in China . Chinese monk has replaced Hu monk , Become the translated Sutra 、 The main force for preaching and organizing the Sangha .

Buddhism was introduced into China , Taoist organizations have taken shape , The two go hand in hand . Taoism is the response of Chinese culture to foreign religions , It also borrows from Buddhist systems and rituals , Beyond the limited pattern of folk beliefs . The chaos of yellow scarves ( Taiping Road , A school of Taoism ) since , There is always the concept of salvation and plundering luck in Taoism , It is often the driving force for large-scale civil affairs .

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5、 ... and 、 Asia's pluralistic China

The general arrangement of Chinese history , Tang and song couplets say , As the unified dynasty of China . However , The author thinks that , Facing the strong neighbors in the north, the song people have always been in the position of the weak , No longer the center of the East Asian world , It cannot be compared with China in the early Tang Dynasty .

Northern China is deeply Hu Hua , An Shi rebellion means that the Hu Hua region challenged the central government , After the an Shi rebellion , Hebei Fanzhen is independent , It continues the cultural tradition of Hu Hua . On this basis , The confrontation between the Central Plains and the northern nationalities , So the Great Wall represents the border between agriculture and animal husbandry , The southward movement is the North-South confrontation divided by the middle zone of the north .

 

1. The Song Dynasty valued literature over martial arts

After the martial arts politics of the late Tang and Five Dynasties , Song Taizu did not want to be threatened by the army to seize power . stay “ The cup of wine to release military power ” After the arrangement of , The political power of the Song Dynasty , That is, relying on a huge civil service system controlled by Confucian scholars and scholar bureaucrats .

Imperial examination in Song Dynasty , More talented people , Confucian scholars basically compete , Enter the civil service system with classical knowledge and written expression ability . Famous officials in Song Dynasty , Su shi 、 Su Zhe 、 Song Jiao 、 qi 、 Fan zhongyan 、 Wang Anshi 、 Wen Tianxiang …… Have no distinguished family background , With literary grace and knowledge , Stand out among the scholar bureaucrats . The royal family and the children of the middle and upper officials have their own official ranks , Later official career may not be smooth , Even if you strive for the top with your own talent , The imperial clan is still unable to serve as the assistant .

The Song Dynasty benefited the scholar officials , Better than the front and back . It is said that , Song Taizu left Zuxun to stop killing scholar bureaucrats . In contrast , Military officials do not have such preferential treatment , Yue Fei's imprisonment is a remarkable example . Look at it from a different angle , Once the scholar bureaucrats set their belts on , Never get rid of the status of a civil servant . Although they have received unprecedented preferential treatment , But it is also dependent on the government .

 

2. The northern regime

Although the five dynasties have the name of Five Dynasties , It is still the transformed force of the above-mentioned Hu Han mixed military group . The Central Plains of the Five Dynasties , It is a chaotic situation , Also always bear the northern Khitan ( liao ) The pressure of the . The founding of the Song Dynasty , Nor can we get rid of the plight of Khitan . The later Jin Dynasty cut the sixteen prefectures of Yanyun after , The national defense line of the Song Dynasty retreated to today's central Hebei and northeast Shanxi . Liao is a Nvzhen ( gold ) replace , Gold is also Mongolia ( element ) replace . China's northern national defense line retreated southward step by step to the Yellow River , And retreated south to the Yangtze Huaihe River .

Song and Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties were a long-term confrontation between Hu and Han , In the course of confrontation , Song people were always at a disadvantage , Repeatedly defeated by Liao . Alliance of au , Song Dynasty used a large number of years old coins , In exchange for a hundred years of peace .

Khitan in the North 、 Jurchen and the three ethnic groups of Mongolia , Three dynasties have been established in China : The Liao Dynasty established by the Qidan people , Western Liao Dynasty ; The immortal woman established Jin ; The Yuan Dynasty established by the Mongols . Three conquering dynasties , The influence left over from the society of the northern and Han nationalities , It has its own profound significance .

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6、 ... and 、 China has entered the world system —— bright

Dating of this chapter , The upper limit is 1500 year , Mainly from 1492 After Columbus landed on the islands off the coast of America in , There are no more independent people in the world . The opening of the ocean and the frequent land traffic in Eurasia , Bring China into the world economic order . A trade surplus , This has enabled China's economy to continue to grow for 300 years , And made China the most prosperous region in the world before modern times !

 

1. Ming Dynasty tends to be closed and conservative

The author thinks that , China in the Ming Dynasty , Since the Yuan Dynasty , In fact, there is no new vitality , On the contrary, they are confined to the empty framework of China's great powers , Blindly conservative Chinese culture , And based on a defensive mindset , Everything is set in one respect . It is closed and conservative , Mainly reflected in the following three aspects :

● Huangming Zuxun

The Ming Dynasty reigned for more than 200 years , But it can't be compared with the great country of Han and Tang Dynasty , The reason is that , It may be the beginning of the country , Taizu set down “ Huangming Zuxun ”, He strictly instructs his descendants not to easily change the laws and regulations he has made . Although later emperors destroyed “ Zuxun ” There are many things , This conservative tone is the final word , As a result, it was difficult to reform politics in the Ming Dynasty .

● The great wall of Ming Dynasty

Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty expelled the yuan court , For the defense of the North , Never dare to slack off . Today, the Great Wall is regarded as one of the world's great projects both at home and abroad , From the old dragon head of Shanhaiguan in Liaodong to the mountains and valleys , Extend to the current Jiayuguan pass , Continuous for nearly ten thousand miles , It is the side wall of the Ming Dynasty !

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The great wall of Ming Dynasty

by comparison , The great wall of Qin and Han Dynasties did not line up , Hu Han trade goes on as usual . In both periods, the Great Wall was taken as the defense line . However , The barrier in Qin and Han Dynasties was open , The side walls of the Ming Dynasty were closed . In mentality , This side wall divides Hu and Han , The world of the Han people sets limits for themselves , It's introverted , Instead of carrying out ; It's closed , Instead of attacking .

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The great wall of Qin

● Impose a sea ban

Facing the South Sea , The attitude of China in the Ming Dynasty swung between openness and closeness , And finally tends to close down . Four years of Hongwu , The Japanese ronin disturbed the sea , For the first time, China has implemented a sea ban , Only Guangzhou is open 、 quanzhou 、 Ningbo has three municipal shipping departments as trading ports . After the middle of the Ming Dynasty , Japanese pirates are becoming more and more rampant , The Ming government simply closed the above three municipal shipping departments , The import of foreign goods is no longer permitted .

 

2. Zhengzhilong Pirate Group

In the Ming Dynasty, when the government was blocking up the sea , The profits of maritime traders are even greater , As a result, there are a large number of people and resources among the people , Venture into the sea . maritime commerce / Among the members of the pirate armed group , Zhengzhilong can be said to be a comprehensive figure .

Zhengzhilong is based in Taiwan , Repeatedly plundered Fujian 、 Guangdong coastal cities . Full people enter the pass , The fall of the Ming Dynasty in Beijing , King Tang of the Ming Dynasty proclaimed himself Emperor in Fujian , Mainly relying on zhengzhilong's maritime force .1646 year , Zhengzhilong is greedy for wealth , Surrender to the Qing court , But was hijacked North . His son Zhengchenggong continued to resist the Qing Dynasty , Zhengzhilong was executed in the northern Qing court of Beijing in the 18th year of Shunzhi .

Taiwan under the leadership of Zheng , Zhengchenggong recovered Taiwan from the first year of Kangxi , In the 22nd year of Kangxi, Shi Lang attacked Taiwan 、 Zhengkeyi subdued the Qing Dynasty , Maintained the rule of three generations , It took 22 years !

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3. The first Western tide

The first shock of China's exposure to European culture , when 16 Western culture passed on by Catholic priests in the th century . This western tide , To influence , In addition to Christian doctrines , Western science and technology , And China and the West have a preliminary understanding of each other .

Among Catholic priests , Saberi was the first person who tried to preach in China . Later, luomingjian and his companion Matteo Ricci went to 1579 Arrived in Macao in , On 1583 The first Catholic Church was founded in , He was immediately called back to Rome . Matteo Ricci successfully cooperated with xuguangqi, a Chinese scholar doctor 、 Li Zhizao is a good friend of all people , And introduce western culture to Chinese intellectuals , Its influence is huge and far-reaching , It can be called the ancestor of the cultural exchange between China and the West .

 

4. Market economy and people's life in Ming Dynasty

It is generally believed that the economic form of China in the Ming Dynasty , It has shown the characteristics of capitalist economy .16 Since the middle ages , After the development of the ocean channel , Whether legal 、 illegal 、 direct 、 transit …… Chinese silk 、 Porcelain is undoubtedly a leader in export trade . American Silver from export trade , Not only is it huge , And specifically benefit the people .

Today China has a large population , It accounts for a quarter of human society . This phenomenon , It began to take shape as early as the Ming Dynasty . Accompanied by , Also from the Ming Dynasty , Food resources have increased . The two cause and effect each other , In the Qing Dynasty, it was out of control , In nearly half a century, there has been such an amazing population .

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7、 ... and 、 China has entered the world system —— clear

Compared with the rapid development of the West , China after entering the world system , Development is too slow . The perfect foot culture system formed since the middle ages , Start fixing 、 Ossification . There has been a rethinking of Chinese civilization in the intellectual circles , It can not continue at this time . This is Chinese traditional culture and traditional political system , The last years of operation .

 

1. The dualistic ruling mechanism

The imperial power of the Qing Dynasty completely controlled Manchuria in the East 、 The vast area of Tibet to the West , It is even more powerful than the Tang Dynasty Khan .

Han land system and man Meng system , The dual system of the Qing Empire . This is the unique characteristic of the Qing Dynasty , Not only unique in Chinese history , Similar cases are rare in world history :

Full people enter the pass , Received the world of the Ming Dynasty , Follow the original way of ruling , Made in Chinese 、 Han officials govern Han people . Although the Qing Dynasty was a foreign regime that conquered the Central Plains , But it is also an imperial dynasty in China —— This is the system of the emperor of the Qing Dynasty .

The other system is Manchu, Mongolian and Tibetan areas , That is, the Manchu Great Khan took Tibetan Buddhism as the spiritual link , Take marriage as the bond of kinship , Take the pilgrimage of the league as a ceremony , In exchange for tribute , It ruled the grassland khanate, which accounted for about two-thirds of China at that time .

 Rivers of all ages

2. Ethnic and cultural conflicts

Full people enter the pass , Because of the political corruption in the Ming Dynasty , People's hearts are gone , There was almost no resistance from the officials and the people .

But in the second year of Shunzhi, the Qing government issued Change from shaving to dressing After the order , Launched the “ Keep your head and no hair , Keep your hair but not your head ” Forced choice , There is resistance everywhere , Jiangnan resistance is the most violent , The Manchus suppressed , successive distresses as caused by continual wars , The Han people fought for more than ten years .

Gu Yanwu “ There is subjugation , There is a world of death ” The distinction between , That is, culture is the world , And he thinks that protecting the country is a matter for the ruling class , Protecting the world is “ The base of a man , And there is nothing ”. Its nature , Change from shaving to dressing , It's not just ethnic conflicts , But directly touched the cultural identity .

 

3. The battle of etiquette

In the 56th year of Kangxi “ The battle of etiquette ” It can be described as a remarkable case of cultural conflict in world history :

Matteo Ricci and others came to China to preach , borrow “ God ” And “ Lord ”, combine “ God ”, As the name of the supreme and the only true God of Christianity , Later, I borrowed from Chinese classics “ God ” And “ lord ” As a divine name . This group of Early Jesuits , Chinese believers are not prohibited from offering sacrifices to Confucius and ancestors . At the end of Ming Dynasty , Dominica missionaries come to China to preach , There is much dissatisfaction with the above behavior , Then he accused the holy see that the Jesuits had misinterpreted their doctrines .

1704 year , The order of the Holy See has since been to use only “ God ” The word" , No more “ God ” And “ lord ” The title of , It is also forbidden for believers to have the ceremony of offering sacrifices to Confucius and ancestors . The Holy See sent envoys to China to convey the Pope's edict , Kangxi then ordered the priests to choose : Study in China to preach or follow the Pope's edict , The latter is deported . Subsequently, the Holy See reiterated the injunction many times ,1773 In, the Holy See decreed to dissolve the Jesuit Church ,1775 The decree was sent to China , The Jesuit Church in China is disbanded .

Kangxi officially banned western missionary work in his later years , From then on until after the Opium War in the Daoguang period , China has just opened its religious ban .

 Rivers of all ages

4. Macartney's visit to China

1792 year , King George III of England sent Sir Macartney to lead Ambassador Pang's delegation to China . The following year , Ma and others arrived in Beijing , I happened to meet Qianlong's longevity celebration . The Qing government regarded the British envoy as a tribute envoy , Ask the British envoy to perform the great ceremony of three worships and nine kowtows , The two sides have been at loggerheads for a long time , Finally, the grand ceremony of receiving the imperial court was completed with a compromise ceremony . About trade , The UK made a request : Set up an embassy in Beijing , Allow Britain to stay in Ningbo 、 zhoushan 、 Tianjin, etc , To live in Zhoushan and Guangzhou , You can also set up a freight forwarder in Beijing , And give tariff preference to mainland trade . The Qing court made the above request , All refused , think “ China is rich in products , nothing needed is lacking , Originally, we didn't borrow foreign goods to exchange goods ”.

The 21st year of Jiaqing , The British government tried again to open the door of China's foreign trade , Sir Ahmed was sent to China with gifts on a naval ship , Trying to complete the unfinished task of Macartney . The two sides also have a dispute over etiquette , Fail to do as you wish .

These two British envoys came to China , The two sides cannot enter into negotiations , On the one hand, the Qing court was complacent and arrogant , Think of yourself as heaven ; On the other hand , Britain is also overconfident , Make a one-sided request for preferential treatment , I hope China will accept . Both sides have ignorance and arrogance .

 

5. The situation in Asia at that time

17 From the middle of the century to 19 In the middle of the century , When China indulged in the heyday of Kangxi and Qianlong , Europe is undergoing great changes . To 19 In the middle of the century , After twohundred years of drastic changes in Europe , Has entered the modern world , Its appearance is quite different from that of medieval Europe . Britain was run from Elizabeth I to Victoria for 300 years , Established “ The sun never sets on the empire ”.

At that time, Asia had three vast ancient empires , The Qing Empire is one of them , The other two are the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East and the Mughal Empire in India . Clive of the British East India Company used the strategy of differentiation and separation , Disintegrated the Mughal Empire . The Ottoman Empire was in England 、 Russia and Germany invaded separately , Finally disintegrated into many countries in the Middle East , The great empire that once dominated the Middle East has shrunk to Turkey !

These changes , At that time, the Qing Empire was completely unaware of it , until 19 At the end of the century , Only in China can there be people with lofty ideals for reform and revolution speak out loudly , To tell you , China will follow in the footsteps of Mughal and Ottoman empires !

 

 Rivers of all ages

8、 ... and 、 A hundred years of stumbling

The western industrial revolution and the expansion of the capitalist empire , Dominating the fate of the world .19 More than 100 years after the middle of the th century , In order to adapt to the new world , Internal self-examination and self-examination 、 Learn and imitate from outside , The Chinese civilization was torn apart 、 Tear .

 

1. After the opium war,

The Opium War was China's first defeat . Britain risked universal condemnation , For the opium trade 、 Payment for purchasing Chinese products , Started a war .

Since the opening of the ocean channel , China's huge long-term international trade surplus , Promote the economic prosperity of China's coastal areas . Jiaqing 、 In the reign of Daoguang , Silver is in short supply all over the world , Britain is especially short of silver , So the opium trade became a means for the British East India Company to pay for China's goods .

Four years later , China has no trade surplus , From then on to the Sino Japanese war , The trade deficit is growing , The deficit is at least tens of millions every year .

 

2. The revolution of 1911

The revolution of 1911 was the bursting point of people's desire for change , Sun Yat Sen's nationalist appeal , It touched the heartstrings of the people at that time , It became the main reason why the national revolution successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty .

The Chinese imperial dynasty is the universal order of all countries , The Chinese revolution borrowed Western nationalist ideas , To fight against Western colonial imperialism . Since then , The work of building a nation in China , So we can't break away from nationalism .

After the revolution of 1911 , The Republic of China was hastily established , The emperor system of thousands of years came to an end , But the republican system has not been implemented , The big powers bullied China , Still aggressive .

 

3. Modern militarization

Modern China is an era of militarization , Since the war of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom , Step by step “ Wu Hua ”. What's called here is “ Wu Hua ”, It means a soldier ( Including generals transferred from literati ), Obtain a considerable degree of autonomy by armed forces , And gradually seize economic resources , The power to dominate part or even the whole country . During this period , Not only is the military population gradually increasing , And who has the power , Who can seize economic resources and political power .

And the next history , We are all familiar with :1911 The Republic of China was founded in 、1928 The Kuomintang's Northern Expedition ended in , And 1949 In, the Communist Party established a new political power ……

The history of the past , Read this , It's over for the time being ; Future history , Let future generations continue to write !

Rivers of all ages Conclusion

 Rivers of all ages

Review the track of Chinese cultural development , The most noticeable thing is the inclusive mind . Even if you encounter foreign cultures , Also can often absorb its essence , Integrate into your own cultural system ; Even when an ideology tends to be dogmatic and rigid , There are often internal corrections , Give Chinese culture a chance to renew .

Chinese culture has gone through thousands of years , Experienced countless ups and downs , A trickle from the source , The Yangtze River receives water from its tributaries all the way , I also accept many ingredients brought by these rivers , Finally converged into a torrent , To the sea —— The world culture jointly created by mankind .

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