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Thinking and position in English speech and debate

2022-06-07 18:34:27Knowledge hall

Thinking and position in English speech and debate
Circle you , Are there any students majoring in English translation , Or engaged in English translation ? Do you want to improve your English thinking ability ?
This set of books is introduced to you today
“ FLTRP Cup ” The designated book for the National College Students' English debate contest 《 position 》!
Ivy League Education Press classic series , It has been selling well all over the world for 30 years , Reprinted more than ten times
A model of English discourse —— Dr. zhujisong, Fudan University (《 An English Chinese Dictionary 》 Editor in chief of the third edition ,@ Bachelor of the Wen Yuan Pavilion ) Write and read
English debate practical teaching materials —— Li Xi, Beijing Foreign Studies University ( The chief referee of the world debate ) Personal recommendation

First of all, this set of books is suitable for friends to read , Xiaobian tells you : University degree , Graduate or above ( The book is all in English , If you have information about your English level , You can also challenge me !)
There are two series .
《 position —— Dialectical thinking training 》( Part one ) yes Taking Sides A collection of seven books in the series . Including environment 、 Society 、 Education 、 Economy 、 Science, technology and society 、 Media and society and global issues . Select the hot topics related to the environment in today's society , Provide from newspapers 、 Court arguments 、 Parliamentary statements and other positive and negative argumentation articles on the same issue , Cultivate the ability of dialectical thinking and argumentation skills for the same point of view . By Thomas · Easton is a professor at Thomas college , Mainly teaching environment 、 Technology and society , Courses in new technology, etc . A famous science fiction critic 、 Columnist .
Set includes :
Classroom instruction manual for dialectical thinking training
1. position - Dialectical thinking training : Education ( The first 17 edition )
2. position - Dialectical thinking training : Economy ( The first 15 edition )
3. position - Dialectical thinking training : Media and society ( The first 12 edition )
4. position - Dialectical thinking training : Environment chapter ( The first 15 edition )
5. position - Dialectical thinking training : Global issues ( The first 7 edition )
6. position - Dialectical thinking training : Society ( The first 17 edition )
7. position - Dialectical thinking training : Science, technology and society ( The first 10 edition )

《 position —— Dialectical thinking training 》( Part two ) yes Taking Sides A collection of seven books in the second batch of the series . Including political issues 、 Business ethics 、 Morality 、 Crime and Criminology 、 Urban research 、 Psychology and gender studies . Select the hot topics related to the environment in today's society , Provide from newspapers 、 Court arguments 、 Parliamentary statements and other positive and negative argumentation articles on the same issue , Cultivate the ability of dialectical thinking and argumentation skills for the same point of view . The editors are experts with outstanding achievements in this field , Have original views on relevant hot issues in this field !

Set includes
1. position — Dialectical thinking training : Political issues ( The first 19 edition )
2. position — Dialectical thinking training : Psychology ( The first 18 edition )
3. position — Dialectical thinking training : Business ethics ( The first 13 edition )
4. position — Dialectical thinking training : Urban research
5. position — Dialectical thinking training : Gender studies ( The first 6 edition )
6. position — Dialectical thinking training : Crime and Criminology ( The first 11 edition )
7. position — Dialectical thinking training : Morality ( The first 14 edition )
8. position — Classroom instruction manual for dialectical thinking training

Wonderful guide
English speculation , Attack the wrong mountain
   What the academic circles regard as the standard 《 Oxford English Dictionary 》(The Oxford English Dictionary) stay side (n.)1 Objective 18.a. In the sense , hold 18.b. Phrases received “to take a (or one’s) side, take sides. Also to hold side (with one)” Inside side Interpreted as [t]he position or interests of one person, party, etc., in contrast to that of an opposing one, Personal position contrary 、 The meaning of opposing party interests , There is no doubt that .
   Pity my stupidity , Only in recent years have we realized ,take sides It's not just a phrase in an English dictionary , It can even be said to be the foundation of the British parliamentary system ; And the parliamentary system , It is one of the greatest contributions of Britain to the progress of human civilization : adopt take sides, To speculate , Instead of acting arbitrarily , Respected as the unshakable core mechanism of state decision-making . We will not forget , The movie 《 iron lady 》(The Iron Lady) Limeril ? Streep (Meryl Streep) When you learn a new English accent, you will come to the Westminster Palace to argue , That's not swearing , Although there were many boos , That's two thoughts competing with each other , Finally advance history .
   When it comes to the west, it's easy to argue 、 The tradition of thinking , Ancient Greece has reached the stage of transformation , Set an example through the ages . However, this does not mean that China is really what some critics say , It was harmed by Confucianism which was set in one respect , Make the scholars only obey the inheritance , Never challenge authority .
  《 The Finest of Ancient Prose 》 Read the last few volumes , You will see the editor wuchucai 、 Houshunephew of Wu Diao encourages readers to boldly question ancient conclusions . Such as the famous article of Fang Xiaoru, a loyal minister of Jianwen 《 Yurang theory 》, new in order to be different , Contrary to the old saying , It directly refers to yurang, an assassin who was the main enemy of snow in the spring and Autumn period “ We can't help danger before chaos , And die for the loser ”, Unworthy “ Guoshi ” The reputation of .
   even to the extent that , In our history textbooks, we always despise it as “ Bury your head in the paper ”、“ a hoary head does research in the classics -- an aged person still learns ” In the Qian Jia School of thought , The textual research of most scholars is also highly speculative . From wangniansun's 《 Reading magazines 》、 Liubaonan's 《 The Analects of justice 》, To Dai Zhen “ From the meaning of the word to the meaning of the Ming Dynasty ” And Duan Yucai 《 Mr. tohara's chronology 》 Dai's notes ——“ The greatest writer in his life is 《 Mencius word meaning sparse card 》 A Book , This is what people want . Today, no matter good or evil , Use the wrong name as a reason , And it will bring disaster to the people , so 《 Sparse syndrome 》 Have to do sth ”—— From text to reality , Stand out , All point to the search for truth .
   Reading for truth . this sentence , It was instilled into me by my teacher when I was a child , I have never doubted . But it was the teacher who told me “ The role of the Qian Jia school in history was reactionary ”、“ When answering questions in the college entrance examination , If you meet Yue Fei , You cannot check as a national hero , The war he fought was a contradiction among the people ” Wait, I can't doubt and refute “ The facts ”.
   The past cannot be traced back , What disappointed me was “ Teaching and learning ”、“ Oppose exam oriented education ” For a few years , Primary and middle school students are learning history by heart 、 Chinese “ The standard answer ”, To the point where easy words are wrong . Some people even attribute the general decline of Chinese level of primary and middle school students to too many English classes , Depending on your mother tongue 、 Foreign language learning is a zero sum game , Do not examine at all 、 Torture 、 Criticize the liberal arts education system itself, which seriously hinders speculation and creation . How about this kind of education , And how can we cultivate people who are alive ? How can we guide them to seek truth ?
   Truth seeking , How hard it is to be true . Sometimes , Authority voice , Dare not delve into it . Sometimes , Lack of conditions , There is no way to find . Information explosion 、 Today, with a broad mind , More often, there are different opinions , Unable to agree , Even sometimes in “ yes ” And “ Not ” Between the two , I don't know what to do .
   And relatively comprehensive 、 Heavy Parataxis (parataxis) Chinese , English is an analytical language , Reconstitute (hypotaxis), The grammatical rules are more explicit , To refer to 、 Higher requirements for forms such as consistency of numbers and lattices , And have a strong view of tense . I can't help but say , To a great extent, this avoids the common harmful meaning of Chinese : Put some untenable fallacies , Pack it in flowery words , Even if it is “ Beautiful writing is well structured ” 了 .( This aspect , Some famous works by Han Yu , For example, for the purpose of teaching Zhang 《 The original way 》, It can be regarded as a negative teaching material , Far inferior to Liu Zongyuan 《 Refute the revenge argument 》. The theory of the latter , Simple and smooth , In essence, it is the same as the classic judgment of today's British and American courts , It can be called ancient China taking sides Paragon .) In addition, the argumentative tradition of British and American scholars in the contemporary era through classroom education 、 Academic papers and other forms have been strengthened , The speculative situation is actually better than that of our country .
   I have always fallen for ancient Rome , I have read several Roman histories compiled by Chinese people , I also saw Christopher of Cambridge University in England ? Kelly (Christopher Kelly) The professor wrote 《 A brief history of the Roman Empire 》(The Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction), The last chapter of the latter shows the vivid and unique thinking of scholars , Unforgettable , It is not our tradition to introduce “ Historical facts ” The history books of :20 At the beginning of the century , British historian 、 The lawyer 、 Liberal politician James ? Bryce (James Bryce) I think the Roman Empire is very similar to the British Empire , Can maintain a high level of internal peace and order , People are well versed in engineering technology , Brave and active , Not afraid of hardship ; Francis, Professor of ancient history at Oxford ? Haverfield (Francis Haverfield) Go further , The success of the Roman Empire , It is to assimilate the provincial residents into an orderly 、 A cohesive civilization ; He once served as the president of the British classical society in India ? Bahrain (Evelyn Baring) Take a different view , stay “ assimilation ” On the issue of , The British Empire is indistinguishable from the Roman Empire , On Indian language 、 religious 、 Ethnic diversity , It is different from any region conquered by the Romans ; Haverfield disagrees with Bahrain , I think the reason why Britain has the Indian problem , Because when India was conquered , India has developed into a developed society , The form of civilization is stable ; Oxford expert in ancient history 、 archaeologist D. G. Hogas (D. G. Hogarth) Also against Bahrain , I think the Roman Empire has three stages , namely “ Not yet assimilated ”、“ Intentional assimilation ”、“ Active assimilation ”, The British Empire is still far away from India “ Not yet assimilated ” The first stage of .
   Put scholars taking sides Various viewpoints in the process are displayed , For readers to ponder , It is the short board of teaching materials at all stages in China . meanwhile , Attention should also be paid to , In order to improve Chinese students' thinking and English ability ,taking sides The content of should not be too specialized ( The above-mentioned debate between the Roman Empire and the British Empire is in danger ), It still has certain social influence 、 Topics well known to the public should be the starting point for organizing teaching materials .
   American famous Taking Sides Series , Its aim is to meet the needs of growing thinkers and English learners . This set of books , Born in 20 century 80 years , Published to date 52 There are special books , Most reprints , Among them, the media are 12 edition , economic 、 The environment reaches 15 edition , social 、 Education has more 17 Many editions . Best selling degree , Don't bother .
   From the subject matter , The first seven volumes selected by FLTRP cover the society 、 education 、 economic 、 Environmental Science 、 Technology 、 Mass media and global issues , No one is not the focus of the current public topic . But the presentation method is very “ A single ”, That is, ask questions first , Then present the most typical examples of both sides 、 The most persuasive argument , Finally, guide the readers to read and think further :
   ask : Does computer have side effects on students' growth ?
   just : Yes . The superstition and abuse of computer technology in schools , It leads to the impairment of students' mental development and creativity .
   back : nothing . Such as making good use of computers , It can promote teaching innovation , So that students can benefit . Postscript :“ School ” Maybe it's being “ place ” Turn into “ Concept ”, With the progress of computer technology , Many educational methods do not have to be implemented in the classroom , But there are many new problems , Need to explore . Multimedia can make students interact with more information , But it often reduces students and students 、 The interaction between students and their environment . For relevant research, please refer to ……( Extended reading involves more than 30 academic resources )
  (《 Education 》 The first 10 topic of conversation )
   The directory is not verbose , But when readers learn complete books , You will be pleasantly surprised to find , My knowledge structure in this field has begun to take shape . The problems before us are often huge and empty , It is common in newspapers , There has been no decision yet . Think from this perspective , There is such a truth ; Cut in from that aspect , There is such a conclusion to be drawn . The task of the reader , Just follow the ideas of the two factions , Finally decide which school is reasonable . Of course , The result may also be that neither faction is perfect , Or we need to modify the harmonic to get the positive solution . But anyway , The process itself , It was really an Odysseus like trip in intelligence (an intellectual odyssey).
   The reason for using Homer's epic metaphor , Because reading Taking Sides It is the most fundamental difference from watching street fights or middle school students' Argumentative Essays , Is the idea that needs to be called 、 There are many academic resources . With 《 Society 》 The first 8 Take the topic as an example , Philip ? Divan (Philip E. Devine) In come “ Torture cannot be preserved ” Before the conclusion of , Liberal politics 、 Kant's theory 、 Utilitarianism 、 Natural law and so on , an important statement need not be prolix . For Devine, a philosopher , These theories may have been well known . But for the average reader , To confirm that the author did not take it out of context , At least read a few more introductions to the above 、 Books like introduction . By the way , The question of whether torture is appropriate , A popular legal book that I have been selling in recent years 《 The rule of law 》(The Rule of Law) In the chapter on terrorism , I have also read comments . author 、 The late former British chief justice Tom ? Bingham (Tom Bingham) The reason for opposing torture to terrorist suspect is essentially the same as Confucius “ What you don't want , Do not to others ” It's no different , I think this is a violation of the rule of law . Compared with Devine , It points directly at the hearts of the people , Only a little lack of academic principles . in fact ,Taking Sides Selected articles of the book series , No matter how short , Everyone has a clear point of view , Tit for tat , And each side has a strong case , At first glance, it is hard to shake . thus , We also have to sigh , The diversity of human civilization today , There is a reason , Whether in the same civilization or between different civilizations , There are complex rational motives behind them , It is by no means easy to distinguish , We need to observe it comprehensively , In-depth analysis of , The final position .
   I came from the English department , Often invited by the media after work , Write some current affairs comments . Before writing , It has become a habit , I will go to Sina Weibo 、 You know 、Quora Wait for the website , Browse the rational comments of all parties , On a highly controversial issue , be familiar with Taking Sides The two words printed on the cover :Clashing Views( Opposing views ). This is my in “ Post University ” A class made up during the period .
   I think back to my undergraduate study , Education in this area is almost zero . The emphasis of education is memorizing synonyms 、 Antonyms and morphological changes . article , Just read it , But I can't read through , Because after reading , I always feel that what I said is reasonable , Don't want to listen “ Different voices ”. This drawback , By the time I write my graduation thesis, it will be revealed that : The expository text is OK , Argumentative papers can't be written well . Although the name is a thesis , Even the core argument is elusive . In recent years , In this major , I also often see research reviews called doctoral theses , Or papers without literature review .
   In order to correct this common problem , Many schools have made great efforts in compiling textbooks , The text introduces controversial topics , It is intended to stimulate students' critical thinking——“ critical thinking ” Therefore, it has become a very popular advertising highlight of College English teacher training classes . unfortunately , In my limited academic vision , Works that can change the atmosphere , It's still missing . I've seen a taster , There is a text in it , From an American tabloid , Talk about a couple who divorce after artificial pregnancy , The embryo is left in the hospital refrigerator , I don't know what to do with , So they went to court . Final , The author just asks questions , Failed to point out the solution to the students . If there are at least two viewpoints with certain ideological depth and diversity presented in the textbook , Attached is a bibliography for extended study 、 summary , The effect of education will certainly be new , We will also really begin to train thinkers in language education , Not just a mechanical memory 、 Replicator . This task , As shown before ,Taking Sides Completely competent .
   Another reason why I am happy to recommend this book as a textbook for intensive reading is the language quality . In terms of quantity , The current intensive reading class (Intensive Reading), Reading is generally too low , A twothousand word article , It takes ten days and a half months to read , Course designers do not understand that there is only a combination of large quantity and short time , Fang Chengcheng intensive Effect . Compared with the , In the volume of a book , Study for a semester , average per day 1500 About words , Just right . Qualitatively speaking , This book is in line with my concept of foreign language acquisition : Middle and high level students , Non fiction works (non-fiction) by “ Staple food ”. for example , This book contains a large number of congressional testimony (congressional testimony), Think carefully , Idiomatic language , Study western law 、 If students majoring in diplomacy and advanced translation can read it by heart , His vision of English learning is bound to be higher . From a practical point of view , Reasonable 、 Powerful 、 A lively style of writing with festival is the daily work 、 Life needs , It's language “ Normal behavior ”; A rich expression created by the author's intention in a literary work , It's just language “ metamorphosis ”. From normal to , The ground is firm at first , There is also great room for development . On the contrary , I'm afraid you can get half the result with twice the effort .
   as for “ extensive reading ”, There is also one based on Taking Sides The strategy is feasible : Works involved in various topics , I can read three or five books in a semester . As read 《 Environment chapter 》, Can read Rachel ? Carson (Rachel Carson) Of 《 Silent spring 》(Silent Spring); read 《 Science, technology and society 》, Can be read as an adjunct to adolescence ? Huxley (Aldous Huxley) Of 《 Beautiful new world 》(Brave New World). here , Maybe more literature , To deepen the “ intensive reading ” Understanding and thinking of righteousness , Ke Quan “ writings are for conveying truth ” Merit .
   Besides ,Taking Sides It also plays a direct role in guiding the popular English debate in Colleges and universities , Whatever the argument or the argument , Can be directly accessed in the simulation stage . I believe more in , Students who have studied this book carefully , His thesis will not be reduced to an introduction 、 review , Don't copy wikis 、 Baidu , Because they have mastered the core technology of thesis writing : How to skillfully use facts and logic to make a serious academic theory , Instead of clinging to the impression 、 habit 、 A dispute of prejudice .
   All in all , hope Taking Sides The introduction of books , It can integrate the language acquisition and thinking training of Chinese English students , Both improve the efficiency of communication , More open the door to truth , In today's era of flying clouds , Help readers quickly achieve both the quality of ideas and the harmony of rhetoric .

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