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People buy more and more things. Will they fill their homes and the earth

2022-05-30 04:28:33Knowledge hall


original Zuo Qisheng

  Like many proverbs ,“ One person's garbage may be another person's baby ” There is something in it , But in my opinion , The truth of this sentence is limited after all . More time , One person's garbage is also garbage to another person . And because there are more and more things in the world , Garbage is becoming more and more .

Second hand world


author : [ beautiful ] Adam · Minter (Adam Minter)

Press. : Social sciences academic press

Producer : Square inch (The Unique World )

Subtitle : Notes on global secondhand market research

The original title : Secondhand: Travels In The New Global Garage Sale

translator : Wang Xiaoke / Caoyijia

Year of publication : 2021-12

the number of pages : 368

pricing : 79

To frame : paperback

Series : Square inch · General education

ISBN: 9787520189040



01


The author investigated the secondhand market in several countries around the world , The book contains a lot of first-hand information about these thrift markets . Developed countries and regions in East Asia are faced with a mountain of personal belongings after the death of the elderly ; In the third world, Americans don't want to see or understand , There is a perfect second-hand goods recycling market .


How can more and more personal belongings in the world save energy and reduce emissions , The author also summarizes the views of the industry and himself . The common practice in the industry is “3R principle ”: Reduce raw materials 、 Repeated use 、 Item recycling . The author's other two suggestions : The proposed service life of the product is proposed by the enterprise ( This will lead companies to sell products that last longer ); Advocate that the global media have an obligation to stop the second-hand trade —— Especially the majority of immigrants and minority enterprises —— The stigmatization of .


In addition, the important information in the book :


1: To meet the growing demand of Americans for storage space , Thousands of mini warehouses are added in the United States every year ;


2: Americans born during the Great Depression prefer to hoard things ;


3:2000~2015 year , Global garment production has doubled , The average number of times each piece of clothing is worn before it is discarded has decreased 36%;


4: Little by little, vendors along the U. S. - Mexico border buy things discarded by residents in the southwestern United States , And then sell it to emerging consumers in Mexico ;


5: India has banned the import of second-hand clothing for as long as 10 many years , But its imported second-hand clothes are all over the country ;


6: The reason why Cotonou has a sorting warehouse , Because New Jersey ( Or Mississauga ) Our sorters don't know enough about Nigeria , And the preferences of local consumers ;


7: Recycled textiles in the United States , nearly 30% All turned into rags ;


8: Apple's anti maintenance ( And battery replacement ) Means to increase the cost of ownership of consumers ;


9: The second-hand trade of globalization has formed spontaneously , Gradually develop , Connect those who have things and those who lack things ;


Overall evaluation 3.5 star , Pretty good .



Here are some excerpts from the book :



02



introduction Written at the donation receiving office


The method she created is very attractive : Keep only what brings happiness , Throw away everything else . This has also led to an important problem that needs to be solved urgently : according to “ Palpitation method ” After finishing , Where will the cleared things go ?


Neither of these behaviors is remarkable , But it shows a fact that is often ignored by people : The clothing of billions of people around the world 、 Education and entertainment depend on second-hand goods . in fact , Energy and raw materials for resale of second-hand goods , Much less than is needed to produce new goods .


We certainly cannot force developing countries to sacrifice development for environmental protection , But the good news is , We are not letting it go . Social problems have their own social solutions , The existing second-hand industry is a solution , It provides goods for billions of people around the world .



CHAPTER 01 Empty nest cleaning company


To meet the growing demand of Americans for storage space , Thousands of mini warehouses are added in the United States every year . By 2017 year , At least in America 54000 Mini warehouses , The space available for rent is enough to cover the entire city of Palm Springs, California , The area of the golf course is also included . In recent years , The annual income of American warehousing industry is... Of that of Hollywood 3 times .


19~20 At the beginning of the century , In many ways , Practical housekeeping Handbook ( Now this type of manual has basically disappeared ) It is equivalent to the maintenance manual .


But here we are 19 century , Many people migrate from the countryside to the city , And there are few places in the city where “ recycling ” food . Due to the lack of centralized treatment of waste , People usually have to pour food scraps into the street through the window .1842 year ,《 The New York times 》 It is estimated that , At that time, there were about 1 Ten thousand pigs roam the streets of New York , Eat the food garbage dumped by people . Modern garbage collection and treatment methods did not appear at that time .


I watched the house cleaning several times , Some commonalities have been found . Older people born during the Great Depression prefer to hoard things . Ellie · Enzi said , Of these older customers , Some people still have plastic bags in their plastic bags . by comparison , Baby boomers , Generally speaking, there are fewer things , But they have more electronics .



CHAPTER 02 Put it in order


Hanzhenzi's business card lists three professional qualifications : Second hand goods dealer license ; The qualification certificate issued by the Japanese Association for the identification of relics collectors ( This organization represents Japan 8000 A cleanup company ); The third item is certified by the agency “ Terminal activity ”(shukatsu,“ Deathbed activities ” For short ) consultant .


This is not the case only in Japan . Developed countries and regions in East Asia , The rate of population aging is accelerating , Also left a mountain of relics . Western European countries are also facing challenges brought about by demographic changes .


2016 year , Japan's second-hand industry is profitable 160 Billion dollars , About% of total retail sales in Japan 4%. actually , The second-hand industry has a greater impact on Japan . for example , According to the data provided by rinai Hamada ,2016 The number of second-hand clothing consumers in Japan reached 2000 ten thousand , About% of the total population of Japan 1/6.



CHAPTER 03 A flood of goods


let me put it another way , In such an era of economic prosperity , Goodville's recycled old clothes 、 Furniture and miscellaneous durable goods , It only accounts for the total number of items discarded by Americans 3%. This amount has been recovered by more than any other organization .


“ It seems that the current clothes will not last long ,” She said ,“ People who make clothes know this , So they don't have to worry about making high-quality clothes .” The data also showed that she was right .2000~2015 year , Global garment production has doubled , The average number of times each piece of clothing is worn before it is discarded has decreased 36%.


Ryumi Hashimoto explained that , People usually think that second-hand books are dirty , therefore BOOKOFF Designed a machine , You can clean up the stains on the books , Organize the fold , In this way, second-hand books can look like new ones , The price is only a small part of the price of the new book . People are more and more willing to sell things to BOOKOFF, Customers are also starting to change their behavior .



CHAPTER 04 good thing


Like many proverbs ,“ One person's garbage may be another person's baby ” There is something in it , But in my opinion , The truth of this sentence is limited after all . More time , One person's garbage is also garbage to another person . And because there are more and more things in the world , Garbage is becoming more and more . But in second-hand goods , As long as it's baby , There will always be attention .


Singapore “ Thief market ” Now it is called Shuangxi road flea market . This is the second-hand goods transfer station , Lost by Singaporeans 、 Something sold or donated , Will find a new owner here .



CHAPTER 05 Break off


“ So even if things are actually made in China , As long as the Japanese have used , People in other places will think it is of good quality .”《 Recirculation communication message 》 Rinai Hamada explained . People in Southeast Asian countries especially think so , Over the past few decades , They have been coveting Japanese first-hand goods , But usually they can't afford to buy .



CHAPTER 06 Our warehouse is a four bedroom


But on the southwestern border of the United States , There is no such enterprise as hamaya to deliver large quantities of goods to the vendors , There is no in Mexico City BOOKOFF. contrary , It is mainly the peddlers who trade here , Little by little, they buy things that the residents of the southwest of the United States don't use , And then sell it to emerging consumers in Mexico .


“ If you can buy a waste electrical appliance , Take it across the border , After the repair, it will be sold , Can earn three times . If you sell new ones, you won't make so much money . The guy who bought the washing machine from me , Will take these machines apart , Clean up , In this way, we can double the money we earn .”



CHAPTER 07 Wear under pins


According to official statistics , Every year there is about 400 Million tons of second-hand clothing are exported to all over the world . actually , The actual transaction amount is larger . India has banned the import of second-hand clothing for as long as 10 many years , But its imported second-hand clothes are all over the country , It also has a second-hand market that even the governments of Delhi and Mumbai will pay attention to .


There is such a simplified judgment —— Second hand goods must have damaged the value of first-hand goods ! Such a judgment seems logical and self consistent , It's not fair , Because the specific choice of individual consumers is affected by many complex factors , And it varies from person to person .


If the Chinese start to look like the Americans , Throw away clothes at the same rate , Then the price of second-hand clothes will be unstable . The flood of old clothes has already begun : Incomplete UN data show that , China is the fifth largest exporter of second-hand clothing in the world , Second only to the United States 、 The British 、 Germany and Korea , More than Canada 、 Rich countries such as the Netherlands and Sweden .


The reason why Cotonou has a sorting warehouse , Because New Jersey ( Or Mississauga ) Our sorters don't know enough about Nigeria , And the preferences of local consumers , There is no way to sort clothes for them . But that doesn't mean New Jersey clothes sorters are stupid , It only shows that they are compared with their counterparts in developing countries , Know too little information .



CHAPTER 08 As good as new


No matter where , Few consumers have heard of the rag industry . But this industry is closely related to everyone . Rag industry 、 Old clothing and Fiber Industry Association (SMART) The data collected shows that , Recycled textiles in the United States , nearly 30% All turned into rags . The actual proportion may be higher . among 45% As a second-hand garment, it can be reused , But it will eventually wear out . When it breaks down , These clothes still have to be shipped to the rag manufacturing company .


Another oddity of Indian trade is , There is a big loophole in the law banning the sale of kandra used clothing to the mainland of India . According to law ,“ Incomplete ” Your clothes can't be worn or sold , But it is allowed to be sent to Panipat in the East . Abdul of mishaga used clothing export company · Maggid · Meridina had hoped very much that I could visit Panipat .


When these used sweatshirts can't be sold in the United States , It is likely to be exported to candela again ( Or go to Mississauga first , Take a detour to candela ), Cut into rags in candela , And then exit . This time, , These wipes will be exported to Newark star, Ohio . Every step along the way has a perfect economic explanation , Even if it sounds absurd on the whole .



CHAPTER 09 Enough to sell


recycling —— This process turns old things into new materials , For making more new products —— It's a good choice . But just as I was 《 Waste planet 》 As it says in , Especially as a solution to environmental problems , Recycling is not perfect . No matter what the manufacturer says , Nothing can be 100% recycled ( such as , Each smartphone has about 15 This kind of metal can't be recycled at all ).


“ Item recycling ” In what we know as 3R principle ( Reduce raw materials 、 Repeated use 、 Item recycling ) Third in the middle . in other words , It is in the best scheme ( Maybe the worst solution ) Third place in the . Famous brands like coca cola claim that their products can be recycled , In fact, it is not promoting sustainable development , But to help consumers who care about sustainable development to reduce their sense of guilt .


Another increasingly popular solution ( At least in rich countries ) Is to further practice “ Reduce raw materials 、 Repeated use 、 Item recycling ” Principles . This approach is minimalism .


Yes , This phenomenon is called “ Dematerialization ”. Dematerialization will also lead to a large number of obsolete 、 Hard to recycle smartphones , But look at the piles at goodville's VHS The video 、CD、DVD、 Vinyl records 、 fixed telephone 、VCR And other things that smart phones can replace , Look at the way most of them are stacked there and nobody wants them , The emergence of smart phones is a kind of progress .



CHAPTER 10 It can last a lifetime


Anders · Professor Karlberg said at the end ,Folksam The advice is , As long as the car seat has not suffered a traffic accident , Or no obvious damage , It can still be used . He also pointed out that , The design of the safety seat has been continuously improved , If the old seat has been used 10 In the above , Customers can buy new and safer seats . however It is not illegal to continue using old seats , And there's no security risk .


Not all , Or most of the quality problems should be attributed to the manufacturer . For most consumers , Price is the king , Manufacturers to meet the needs of customers , We can only find ways to reduce production costs .


Will the product life label work ? so far , Two of the most persuasive studies ( They are all carried out in Europe ) indicate , Life labels have a significant impact on consumers' purchase decisions .



CHAPTER 11 The rich use bad things


Official data show , Have 35 Tamali, with a population of million, has 100 Many TV repair shops , Many shops do more than repair every day 5 A TV set . A conservative estimate , In this sparsely populated West African Region , Hundreds of used TV sets need to be repaired every week .


Apple's anti maintenance ( And battery replacement ) Means to increase the cost of ownership of consumers , How many apple devices have not been repaired ? In the world, those who do not Genius Bars Genius Bar or Apple authorized repair center in the town , How many are broken iPhone Lying in the drawer ?


Disassembly of machine parts is not a new concept in the global maintenance industry . As Robin reminded me in savilugou , This is a sideline of all car dumps ( occasionally , Even the main business ). On a global scale , We should persist in doing the business of automobile maintenance , Disassembly of machine parts is usually the best way , Sometimes it's the only choice .



CHAPTER 12 More suitcases


The better part is , This trade was not created by laws or regulations . The second-hand trade of globalization has formed spontaneously , Gradually develop , Connect those who have things and those who lack things . Even if goodville and Greenpeace try , There is no way to create a better system .


Whether admitted or not , About whether a particular country or region can import or export “ The garbage ” The discussion of the , The core is whether people of a particular race have access to material goods and whether they should follow the rules of rich countries, usually white countries , Use and dispose of items .


Despite the prohibitions and restrictions , Second hand trade is even more rampant . Rwanda is not the only country facing this dilemma . India bans the import of second-hand clothing , But now there are used clothes everywhere ; Nigeria restricts and imposes tariffs on all second-hand imports , But in many places , The consumer economy is still dominated by second-hand trade .


The global media have an obligation to stop the second-hand trade —— Especially the majority of immigrants and minority enterprises —— The stigmatization of . contrary , The media should recognize that the second-hand industry is of great global significance , And make such reports .



Postscript


While writing this book , The biggest difficulty I encountered was the constant temptation . In Yokohama, Japan BOOKOFF, I almost bought a lot of used Thomas trains for my son . The empty nest cleanup company in Minnesota , I almost bought one I used to play when I was a child 《 Monday football game 》 Board role-playing games . 



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