What's the meaning of life ？
If you've ever thought about it , I have also looked for different answers , Then this book may give you a systematic answer ——《 A view of life 》.
Its author is Feng Youlan, a famous contemporary Chinese philosopher . He graduated from the Philosophy Department of Peking University , He went to the United States to get a doctor of Philosophy . But when it comes to Feng Youlan , The most familiar works are still 《 History of Chinese philosophy 》, Completely forgot that he had also studied Western Philosophy .
《 A view of life 》 It originated from a scene in the 12th year of the Republic of China “ The debate on outlook on life ”—— Can science solve the problem of outlook on life . The debate was initiated by Mr. Ding Zaijun , Tang Qinghuang 、 Hu Shi 、 Zhang Junmai came off one after another . Mr. Feng Youlan saw the discussion of many scholars , But it didn't solve a problem , Write it down . The contents of this pamphlet are compiled and expanded from this , In particular, the next chapter also contains a doctoral thesis on life by Mr. Feng .
What is life ？ The truth of life is concrete life . Your life all the time 、 Fortune is a concrete life . After school in the evening , Students who rush out of school , Tired white-collar workers in the subway after work , Workers who go out early in the morning , Old people who play chess or dance on the roadside , All this shows the vitality of life , Is the concrete life .
What is the purpose of life ？ In fact, life has no purpose . The emergence of human beings is an accident in nature , For nature, there is no purpose . If you judge that life is meaningless , It doesn't have to be .
significance , It's given by people . Mr. Feng Youlan said that the meaning of life given by everyone is unique and unique , There is no need to argue about right and wrong .
The Chinese people are most concerned about fate , Whether it was or is . Many Chinese believe that their life and destiny are inseparable . today , Master numerology is still doing well . Their business also develops with the times , From offline to online . These masters are very difficult to ask , The schedule has been scheduled for more than half a year , It's not cheap at a time .
Fate in the mouth of the master of numerology , It's a fixed number . This kind of fixed number is determined first , Then it's natural for someone to predict . The fate of Mr. Feng Youlan's mouth is completely another matter ： An unintentional encounter .
Life and fortune are different ： Luck is a person's experience in a certain period , Life is what happens to a person in his life .
—— Feng Youlan 《 A view of life 》 The next part lu / On fate
The happiness and misfortune a person suffers , There is no reason to say . Hard work and invincible experience is fate , There is no preconceived prophecy . Mr. Feng Youlan also calls this fate opportunity .
There are three kinds of achievements in life ： knowledge 、 career 、 moral . There are also three factors to achieve these achievements ： only 、 life 、 force , That is, talent 、 fate 、 Strive .
The achievement of knowledge requires ” only “ The ingredients are big , The achievement of a career requires a great element of fate , Moral achievement requires a lot of effort .
The achievement of learning , Will your deepest experience be someone else's children ？ Whatever you do , Other people's children are always better ？ I'm afraid that's the difference between talent , Maybe it's a congenital gene , It may also be the day after tomorrow . All in all , That's someone else's kid .
Career success depends on fate . The most telling problem is survivor bias . It's hard to start a business , How difficult is it? ？ When we see the rise of Ma Yun's Ali empire , But I didn't see tens of millions of the same platforms wiped out by the waves of the times . Some big enterprises are in a mess , But it does not prevent it from becoming one of the top 100 enterprises , It's just that there is no better competitor .
Moral achievement is what everyone can do , And only by trying to do what you should do . Under the epidemic , Obeying the government's arrangement without adding chaos is what everyone can do .
There are four realms in life
Man to the world 、 Different degrees of understanding of life , Conversely, the meaning of life varies from person to person . Different people have different meanings of life , Different people have different life realms .
The realm of life can be divided into four ： The realm of nature 、 Utilitarian realm 、 Moral realm 、 The realm of heaven and earth .
In the realm of nature , People do things according to their talents or customs . There is no clear purpose , I don't understand the meaning of what I do .
People in the realm of utilitarianism , The pursuit of personal interests . They fully understand the meaning of their actions .
Most ordinary people are in the first two realms .
People in moral realm , The pursuit is righteousness . The difference between righteousness and benefit is the difference between public and private . People in the moral realm pursue social and public interests , Not for personal gain .
Ancient and modern sages 、 Heroes have reached this moral realm .
People in the realm of heaven and earth , They are often great sages , Their behavior is not only to contribute to society , Can contribute to the whole world . I'm afraid through the ages , Only those great philosophers can achieve .
There is little difference in the material world enjoyed by people in different realms , See that the spiritual world is completely different . Even if people in the latter two realms do ordinary things , The meaning of these things is also completely different for him and ordinary people . Mr. Feng Youlan quoted this sentence as saying ：
It's very clever and the doctrine of the mean .
Mr. Feng Youlan believes that people in the four realms gradually deepen their understanding of the world . So how to deepen the understanding of the world , Gradually enter the moral realm 、 The realm of heaven and earth ？ Mr. Feng Youlan provided a method , He doesn't indicate in the book that this method is used for realm improvement , Read but think it's feasible .
Study philosophy , Is the way to improve the realm . Feng Youlan mentioned the effect of philosophy on Education , On the contrary, I think that all growth and promotion are caused by education ？
Learning philosophy can develop clear thoughts , You can gain the ability to think . Now more and more people mention critical thinking , In fact, critical thinking comes from philosophy .
Philosophy can cultivate the spirit of doubt , Get rid of the situation of echoing others , No longer arbitrary 、 Blind obedience .
Learning philosophy can develop an attitude of tolerance . There are many philosophical factions , Different religious philosophies 、 Idealism 、 Materialistic philosophy , There are many branches under these big factions . Tolerant attitudes can be reconciled , Not prone to conflict . So called conflict , It is people who think they are good and can't tolerate what others think they are good . and , It can adjust and meet the needs of many parties , Let each other coexist .
Learning philosophy can broaden our horizons . The object of philosophy is the whole world, the universe . Study philosophy to gain a broader perspective , The natural realm will be improved .
Mr. Feng Youlan's 《 A view of life 》 It provides us with four realms of life , They represent different meanings of life . Of course, Mr. Feng Youlan has this feeling , Thanks to his thorough understanding of Chinese classics , So he advocated Neo Confucianism .
If we take the four realms as a reference , Moral realm , In fact, it is what each of us can achieve . After all, hard work is that we can control , And talent 、 Opportunity is that foreign things are uncontrollable .
The truth of life, as Mr. Feng said , It's a concrete life 、 Specific people 、 Specific things . Pursue the moral realm , It is one of the meanings that ordinary people can find in life .
【 writing / Yun Jiuyi 】
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