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Accurate observation and effective communication

2022-04-06 03:01:51 Knowledge hall


“ Discovery is seeing what everyone can see , But think of an idea that no one wants .”


00. Insight : The art of accurate observation and effective communication

Keen observation and effective communication , Not as complex as rocket experiments , They are more direct and simple , It's people's innate ability .

When you ask creative people , How they did something , They will be a little ashamed , Because in fact, they are not “ do ” What happened , They are just “ see ” Got something .【 See people's needs or pain points 】

As Sherlock Holmes famously said :“ Most people are just watching , But no observation .” So I want the boss to 、 The family looked at us with new eyes , We need to restructure our world outlook , Change the method of insight .

We can exercise through works of art .

Art historian David · Joslitt describes art as “ An extremely high form of storage of experience and information ”. Art contains for us to temper ourselves and watch 、 Insight and all the details of communication skills . Because when you grow up , We are used to the complexity of the world , Only pay attention to innovative and urgent things , And let them occupy our vision . We rely on experience and institutions 【 It may also be due to neural plasticity 】, Instead of looking for nuances , As a matter of fact , It's the details , Will play a greater role in our success . We have to be particularly adapted to , It's exactly what you see and deal with at ordinary times , Not on something new or special .

The core of this course is summarized as “4A”:
  • evaluation (assess). Only collect the truth , Distinguish between objective and subjective , Notice big or small details and hidden information at the same time
  • analysis (analyze). Prioritization makes the collected information more orderly . Especially when we express our findings to others in the workplace , Need to think carefully , What we think is important
  • Express clearly (articulate). Gather facts calmly , Then analysis 、 Sort . Step back , Consider things from multiple perspectives . Consider your body language and nonverbal communication, etc . Make yourself objective 、 accuracy 、 accurate . and , Learning how to separate subjectivity from objectivity gives people confidence .
  • To adapt to (adapt). Overcome inherent prejudices , Subjective questions , An objective answer


01. evaluation : Master observation skills

(1) Cognitive blind spot

The first thing is to understand the brain “ cruise control ”. When we go through “ cruise control ” Traveling around the world , Our eyes seem to have seen everything , But in fact, there is no 【 I think it has something to do with neural plasticity 】. So we must be aware of this

What do you see ? Just tell me in one sentence , What do you see ?
Do you see it ? Did you see it in the beginning ? Did you mention it in the sentence describing the photo ? This is not an illusion or a post-processing trick , This letter C Really exist . Is this an important part of the picture ? Is it worth mentioning ? For various reasons , Yes . This letter C Put this picture in a very unique position , If you look deeper , You'll find this letter C Painted on one side 100 Foot high rock wall

By preparing our minds , Observe and focus on everything , And find the people around us , And our own possibilities , We can open the door to success in life . Recognize that insight is not just a passive process , It is also a process of actively using our senses , We have already started this journey of insight

You can also practice on a daily object : watch 、 Handbag or kettle . Find something with many details , And watch it for a whole minute . then , Take it away or cover it , Record as many details as possible : shape 、 Color 、 texture of material 、 The words written on it have dimensions . Finally bring it , Don't just glance , Pay attention to watching for a longer time . Watch the same thing 3 The next is long , Or is it 3 minute , See how much more you can find . Do this exercise with different things , Do it every day , For a week , Eventually you will find out how much this training improves your attention , And the ability to remember what you see .

(2) Perceptual filter

Why don't two people see things the same way . What can you see from the figure below .


No two people in the world will see anything from the same perspective . From innate biological genes to the biases we learn , Everything affects the way we see the world . As an independent individual , Not only do we observe in different ways 、 Pay attention and collect information , We will understand in different ways .

Because we are born with the ability to filter information , This allows us to focus on the limited and important parts of the information input into the brain by multiple senses 【 It's also neuroplasticity 】

What we need to do is see through our subconscious filters . We can try to avoid our subconscious traps , For example, our cognitive filter , By bringing them into our consciousness , As long as we pay attention , You can do it . such as You can ask yourself Have I been …… Affected by
  • The experience of myself or someone close to me ?
  • Where I used to be 、 The distance or present position of an object ?
  • My values 、 moral 、 Cultural or religious beliefs ?
  • My upbringing or education ?
  • My career ambition 、 An experience of ambition or failure ?
  • My personal desire 、 An experience of ambition or failure ?
  • My natural likes and dislikes ?
  • My financial experience or outlook ?
  • My political beliefs ?
  • My physical state ( disease 、 height 、 Weight etc. )?
  • My current mood ?
  • The circle I identify with or the organization I belong to ?
  • The media I've used : Books 、 TV 、 Website ?
  • Messages or impressions from friends or colleagues ?

(3) objective evaluation

When exploring the truth , We need to distinguish between subjective exploration and objective exploration
  • Subjective exploration . Be a doctor 、 Police officer 、 The teacher said “ I've seen this before ” When , They are wrong . They may have seen similar , Or dealing with similar things and people , But that's not the new thing in front of them 、 Case or person , It hasn't appeared before . When judging , The earlier you assume , The more dangerous it is , Because it will bring prejudice to later observers 【 I think of 《 A dream of red mansions 》 in Zhang Youshi See Qin Keqing 】
  • Objective exploration . We have to use and reporters 、 Law enforcement 、 Researchers collect information and use the same basic model to study : figure 、 event 、 Time 、 place . Who is in this scene ? What is going on? ? When did it happen ? Where did this happen . adopt Calculation 、 Estimate , Or use measurement tools to quantify

Jia rongdao :“ It is . Please sit down, sir , Let me talk about the disease of the bitch , Look at the pulse ?” The gentleman said :“ According to my younger brother , I saw the pulse first , What's more . I was the first to build the royal residence , Ben doesn't know what , But Uncle Feng must ask his younger brother to come and have a look , So I have to come . Now look at your pulse , See if what I said is , Tell me more about the disease these days , Let's consider a good prescription , Available or not , At that time, I will decide .”
[ clear ] Written by Cao Xueqin . Zhi Yanzhai comments on stone ( Two volumes ). Phoenix Yili .2011:114.

For example, some people think that a rusty sickle is a symbol of fertility , But others think it represents destruction . Which view is correct ? Neither is true . Unless the sickle is marked this or that , But it didn't , So it can't prove that any view is correct . The only objective and correct answer is : A rusty sickle is a rusty sickle . Call it anything else , It's all changing the truth

(4) The strategy of observation , Called Cobra (COBRA), Through this 5 A step , To reveal the hidden details :
  1. Camouflaged( False focus )
  2. One( Do one thing at a time )
  3. Break( sit back )
  4. Realign( Adjust expectations )
  5. Ask( Ask others to watch with you )


02. analysis : Put the most important facts on the top

In art , Perspective refers to the perspective from which a work will actually be viewed . The artist will seriously consider how to choose the angle , And in many cases , The perspective is directly manipulated by the artist , So that those works can consciously and directly enter the eyes of the audience .

We need to analyze from every angle .

(1) Physical perspective . “ Change the way you see things , What you see will change .” It's no exaggeration to say , As we watch , The angle we stand will greatly change the way we see things , therefore , It's important to get information from as many physical angles as possible 【 For example, looking at a painting or statue from different angles 】

(2) On-the-spot , Look at the real thing . Instead of having “ Don't hit the south wall, don't turn around ” Think about the same thing with the same mentality , Why don't you get up and walk away , Use your observation skills in real life , meanwhile , Your critical thinking ability will be ignited , Perception will recover , So in many cases , The problems in your mind will be solved .

(3) Sensory perspective . The more you let your senses work , This process becomes more and more automatic , And then you'll see , Other senses will also improve your viewing ability 【 Look, hear, etc 】

(4) The perspective of the mind . When you want to share with others , Make sure you have a complete and comprehensive introduction to your world . To do that , Ask yourself a few simple questions :
  • Did I ignore anything ?
  • What I take for granted ?
  • When others enter my world , What things he may not know ?

(5) New perspective . Like insight , Our perspective will also change , Not immutable . Many things can manipulate our perspective : Time 、 State of mind 、 And new experiences that change our horizons . Some things that a person thinks today , Today's description of some things , It will be very different from the view of the future .

The more times we recall something , The more : Or you'll remember more , Or it will reshape the memory of that time , Especially when it's about an emotional experience .

There is an unconscious system in our brain , When it comes across conflicting information , Will produce a story to reconcile them
[ beautiful ] Elize · Stenberg . Neural logic . Utopia .2018:238.

Why is this so important ? Because the change of perspective will also bring about the change of observation . If we interview Matisse , Ask him 1914 What color is the sea in , He would say “ black ”—— He's not lying , Because for Matisse ,1914 Years of life and 9 Life was very different years ago . World War I just broke out , The German army invaded Matisse's hometown , His old and frail mother was trapped in the enemy position , Friends were conscripted , Brothers became prisoners of war , Although he wanted to join the army many times , But he was repeatedly rejected because of his age . The French expropriated his house in Paris as the headquarters , So he was exiled to the summer studio .

For us , The sea is blue , But for him , The sea is black . I emphasized this in the training of the sexual assault investigation team of the Peace Corps , I said, The reason why victims change their real experience , Maybe just because over time , She will remember things beyond recognition .

Henry · Matisse ,《 The open window 》,1905
Henry · Matisse ,《 The French window of coriuer 》,1914

(6) From the perspective of priorities . If we don't subconsciously decide which task to deal with first , The brain will make choices instead of us , Based on our built-in cognition and preferences

We can't assume that others have time 、 Have the will to 、 Have the ability to analyze a mountain of information from multiple channels . We need to prioritize this information , Or others will sort by themselves , And this sort may be wrong . We need to make sure that important information is not missed by others .

To help prioritize , We must first look at all available information in detail , And put the most important facts on the top . Only when we first collect all the information we can collect , To successfully prioritize . however , Once all the information is collected , We're going to screen them

“ Trigeminal questioning ”, Just ask yourself three questions , Ask these three questions to help organize information , And find the most important elements in any case :
  • What I know ?
  • What I don't know ?
  • If it is possible to get more information , What else do I need to know ?


03. Express clearly : How to avoid failed communication

Artists know why they are artists , Not just because people see them like that , Or what qualifications or awards they have won . They are called artists because they can't help but want to create

Whether you finish a work ( A painting 、 A sculpture , Or any other work of art ) How simple it looks 、 It takes no effort , They all rely on a specific, almost standard process . Although the details of this process will vary from person to person , But these differences are only superficial , for instance , Although sculptors and photographers use different tools , But we must learn the best way to work , Is very skilled in using a hammer or operating a camera . These basic processes are ultimately the same , namely Artists must graft ideas and media , Or combine the expression content with the expression method . In the same way, we will understand , No matter what we communicate , How to communicate , We can all pass the study plan 、 Practice and practice carefully , To create the best information

(1) Make a wise choice of words

We should pay attention to our words as painters look at their paintings : They serve as a communication tool , It needs careful consideration , And you have to go through brain screening before you say it . For painters , The choice of a certain color is extremely important , So again , Before we talk , Think ahead about what kind of wording to use , It's like trying to make sure you're drawing an accurate picture .

A lot of times , Subjective words can be easily identified : It's mixed with personal opinions , Not based on facts . However , There are also some words with subjective signals that have subtle effects , They will make the listener lose interest , Even worse is , If you are not careful, you will make the audience have opposing emotions , That is to say 《 Nonviolent Communication 》

(2) Think about your audience

Just like when we do observation exercises, we should collect as much information as possible , We should also consider the potential audience before speaking , From their point of view , Make sure the communication contains all the relevant information for them , At the same time, we should also translate our words into sentences that they can easily understand and accept .

(3) Specific practice

Take the sentence you wrote down , Find someone , Read it aloud to him . Don't show that man the picture , Use words to convey what you see to people who can't see the picture , It's a simple and valuable practice to express what you see in language .

To test your level of description of objective facts , Ask the audience to draw a picture according to your description . If your description doesn't contain enough information for the other person to copy the painting , that , return , Write another description , Make the message more accurate .

(4) The importance of pruning and cutting leaves : Why is silence better than talking too much

A good communicator must be concise , They make every word of themselves valuable .

(5) Don't let the bad paint dry

When we admit our mistakes , And correct it as soon as it is found , People will be more tolerant and patient with us . Don't let the wrong sum kill , And don't let the dust stay in our wrong communication . We should correct it as quickly as possible

(6) Make sure the other person receives the message

In order to help our communication be accepted , We need to do these last steps in the process of transmitting information . This is the secret that communication is more acceptable , I call it Three R: repeat (repeating), Rename (renaming), And rebuild (reframing)

  1. first R: repeat (repeating). If you feel uncomfortable letting the other person repeat what you said word for word , You can ask him to comment on what you say . such as Ask each other , When you finish this task , Which step is the most difficult 、 The easiest or most complex .
  2. the second R: Rename (renaming). When we encounter obstacles in understanding , Just simply change the name , The problem may be solved , For example, the Avignon girl in Picasso
  3. Third R: Rebuild (reframing). If your message doesn't resonate with the audience , Then you need to try to reconstruct the way you express . For example, the begging language of the blind reads : Today is a beautiful day , You can see , I can't see .

(7) Under pressure or when you have to do it , How to keep calm and communicate effectively . The more uncomfortable things are expressed and faced positively , The better we'll be in this situation

  • Say what you see , Not what you think . This picture makes you feel uncomfortable , No problem ; You don't like it , It's not a problem ; It's just that you can't ignore it , Because it does exist , And it's right in front of you . Because we ignore those facts , Or choose not to believe what we see , To make bad things happen .【 A bit like the emperor's new clothes 】
  • Believe what you see . We must believe what we see , Even if this may require us to think of unimaginable situations , Or say something hard to say . You can't ignore the alarm signal , Because their appearance predicts something impossible for us
  • Wisdom is better than emotion . Separating objective facts from subjective emotions is also the most important thing . When observing and evaluating , Separate facts from fiction , In the analysis section , Separate inference from opinion .
  • Keep going . repeat , Rename and rebuild .
  • Add a spoonful of sugar to the mixture . If repeat 、 Renaming or rebuilding doesn't work , The other party still holds on , Until we find out who to blame , that , This is the case , Take the initiative to take responsibility . Try to say :“ I'm sorry , There are communication mistakes between us / misunderstand / Things are not clear .” Some people , After hearing “ I'm sorry ” I won't quit the debate before , But you didn't say it was your fault , You're giving them a real concession , Because you get into this situation with them and misunderstand each other , It'll be worse than your voluntary apology .


04. To adapt to : Overcome inherent prejudices

From a biological point of view , People are inherently biased , And Prejudice itself is not bad . But refuse to meet us 、 Sort out and overcome those based on untruth 、 It is unfair to others without prejudice , There will be problems

(1) Unconscious bias

Because our brain receives far more information than we can process , So there is a shortcut to thinking , Including a lot of things we've learned , It allows us to automatically prioritize and filter information . Unconscious prejudice is one of the shortcuts , Each of us has unconscious prejudices , They will quickly fill the gap for us , So our bodies can make slow 、 Fight or escape before thinking consciously .【 Neuroplasticity 】

(2) Experience bias

We also don't want to completely separate ourselves from our own experience , Because when we're looking for information , Personal experience is valuable , But we have to be careful , Don't let them completely deviate from what we observe .【 Hold the hammer. , Everything you see is a nail 】 Coping with prejudice 3 A rule :
  1. Dare to recognize and abandon unfavorable prejudices
  2. Don't take prejudice as fact , But use them to find the truth
  3. Ask others to check when making a conclusion

(3) Subjective questions , An objective answer

Some situations don't seem so straightforward , There may also be no clear answer , But that doesn't mean we can't deal with them . When we face some problems 、 Events or challenges are vague , Morally ambiguous , Or in gray areas , Think of it as a subjective question , Then deal with it objectively .【 For example, the public relations problems of the company in case of emergencies 】

Gray areas because of scale 、 The importance and context vary , But they will appear both in the workplace and in personal experience . Whatever the occasion , There are subjective reactions , Can only expand the negative impact , Make things more dangerous , Make the facts more blurred . We must deal objectively with , Even if the matter itself is subjective . To do so , Maybe we can't get rid of those difficult problems , But we can when things get into trouble , Minimize your risk .

As the example in the book , Johnson & Johnson's poison capsule time , The poisoning incident has never been solved , And led to several similar incidents in China . however , Instead of pursuing the unknown , It's better to give priority to “ Care about what you can care about ”, Recall drugs and other measures , As a result, it created a miracle of the company , Completely restored its market share , Make it one of the most trusted brands in the United States . How Johnson & Johnson did it ? Is to deal with the facts objectively , Free from subjective factors .


just as 《 Liu run ·5 Minute business school 》 The crisis public relations mentioned

  1. This pot is my back : First of all, be honest . A brand is a container , It contains the user's “ understand , Trust and preference ”, The more trust , The more valuable the brand is , Selling is saving money in the brand , The crisis is to spend money from the brand .“ The question is true ” After the four words were said, the public mood immediately reversed ,“ This pot is my back ” Our responsibility stopped the bleeding of the great artery of brand trust in time .
  2. I'll correct this mistake Give a sincere correction plan and tell the public : I'll correct this mistake .
  3. Let's go The spread of the crisis on the Internet has exceeded the speed at which most companies deal with the crisis , So winning time is the key to crisis public relations . React quickly , It's very big . Apologize , I'll do it right away , Don't talk nonsense , Don't delay the fighter .


00. Conclusion

Each of us as long as we have better observation and expression skills , You can avoid a lot of losses , You can also see more opportunities , Better protect the people around us .

The more powerful a person is , The more you can use your abilities , Make yourself and the world around you better




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