“ Discovery is seeing what everyone can see , But think of an idea that no one wants .”
00. Insight ： The art of accurate observation and effective communication
Keen observation and effective communication , Not as complex as rocket experiments , They are more direct and simple , It's people's innate ability .
When you ask creative people , How they did something , They will be a little ashamed , Because in fact, they are not “ do ” What happened , They are just “ see ” Got something .【 See people's needs or pain points 】
As Sherlock Holmes famously said ：“ Most people are just watching , But no observation .”
So I want the boss to 、 The family looked at us with new eyes , We need to restructure our world outlook , Change the method of insight .
We can exercise through works of art .
Art historian David · Joslitt describes art as “ An extremely high form of storage of experience and information ”. Art contains for us to temper ourselves and watch 、 Insight and all the details of communication skills .
Because when you grow up , We are used to the complexity of the world , Only pay attention to innovative and urgent things , And let them occupy our vision . We rely on experience and institutions 【 It may also be due to neural plasticity 】, Instead of looking for nuances , As a matter of fact , It's the details , Will play a greater role in our success . We have to be particularly adapted to , It's exactly what you see and deal with at ordinary times , Not on something new or special .
The core of this course is summarized as “4A”：
evaluation （assess）. Only collect the truth , Distinguish between objective and subjective , Notice big or small details and hidden information at the same time
analysis （analyze）. Prioritization makes the collected information more orderly . Especially when we express our findings to others in the workplace , Need to think carefully , What we think is important
Express clearly （articulate）. Gather facts calmly , Then analysis 、 Sort . Step back , Consider things from multiple perspectives . Consider your body language and nonverbal communication, etc . Make yourself objective 、 accuracy 、 accurate . and , Learning how to separate subjectivity from objectivity gives people confidence .
To adapt to （adapt）.
Overcome inherent prejudices , Subjective questions , An objective answer
01. evaluation :
Master observation skills
（1） Cognitive blind spot
The first thing is to understand the brain “ cruise control ”.
When we go through “ cruise control ” Traveling around the world , Our eyes seem to have seen everything , But in fact, there is no
【 I think it has something to do with neural plasticity 】.
So we must be aware of this
What do you see ？ Just tell me in one sentence , What do you see ？
Do you see it ？ Did you see it in the beginning ？ Did you mention it in the sentence describing the photo ？ This is not an illusion or a post-processing trick , This letter C Really exist . Is this an important part of the picture ？ Is it worth mentioning ？ For various reasons , Yes . This letter C Put this picture in a very unique position , If you look deeper , You'll find this letter C Painted on one side 100 Foot high rock wall
By preparing our minds , Observe and focus on everything , And find the people around us , And our own possibilities , We can open the door to success in life . Recognize that insight is not just a passive process , It is also a process of actively using our senses , We have already started this journey of insight
You can also practice on a daily object ： watch 、 Handbag or kettle . Find something with many details , And watch it for a whole minute . then , Take it away or cover it , Record as many details as possible ： shape 、 Color 、 texture of material 、 The words written on it have dimensions . Finally bring it , Don't just glance , Pay attention to watching for a longer time . Watch the same thing 3 The next is long , Or is it 3 minute , See how much more you can find . Do this exercise with different things , Do it every day , For a week , Eventually you will find out how much this training improves your attention , And the ability to remember what you see .
（2） Perceptual filter
Why don't two people see things the same way . What can you see from the figure below .
No two people in the world will see anything from the same perspective . From innate biological genes to the biases we learn , Everything affects the way we see the world . As an independent individual , Not only do we observe in different ways 、 Pay attention and collect information , We will understand in different ways .
Because we are born with the ability to filter information , This allows us to focus on the limited and important parts of the information input into the brain by multiple senses 【 It's also neuroplasticity 】
What we need to do is see through our subconscious filters .
We can try to avoid our subconscious traps , For example, our cognitive filter , By bringing them into our consciousness , As long as we pay attention , You can do it . such as You can ask yourself
Have I been …… Affected by
The experience of myself or someone close to me ？
Where I used to be 、 The distance or present position of an object ？
My values 、 moral 、 Cultural or religious beliefs ？
My upbringing or education ？
My career ambition 、 An experience of ambition or failure ？
My personal desire 、 An experience of ambition or failure ？
My natural likes and dislikes ？
My financial experience or outlook ？
My political beliefs ？
My physical state （ disease 、 height 、 Weight etc. ）？
My current mood ？
The circle I identify with or the organization I belong to ？
The media I've used ： Books 、 TV 、 Website ？
Messages or impressions from friends or colleagues ？
（3） objective evaluation
When exploring the truth , We need to distinguish between subjective exploration and objective exploration
Subjective exploration . Be a doctor 、 Police officer 、 The teacher said “ I've seen this before ” When , They are wrong . They may have seen similar , Or dealing with similar things and people , But that's not the new thing in front of them 、 Case or person , It hasn't appeared before .
When judging , The earlier you assume , The more dangerous it is , Because it will bring prejudice to later observers 【 I think of 《 A dream of red mansions 》 in Zhang Youshi
See Qin Keqing 】
Objective exploration . We have to use and reporters 、 Law enforcement 、 Researchers collect information and use the same basic model to study ： figure 、 event 、 Time 、 place . Who is in this scene ？ What is going on? ？ When did it happen ？ Where did this happen . adopt
Calculation 、 Estimate , Or use measurement tools to quantify
Jia rongdao ：“ It is . Please sit down, sir , Let me talk about the disease of the bitch , Look at the pulse ？” The gentleman said ：“ According to my younger brother , I saw the pulse first , What's more . I was the first to build the royal residence , Ben doesn't know what , But Uncle Feng must ask his younger brother to come and have a look , So I have to come . Now look at your pulse , See if what I said is , Tell me more about the disease these days , Let's consider a good prescription , Available or not , At that time, I will decide .”
[ clear ] Written by Cao Xueqin . Zhi Yanzhai comments on stone （ Two volumes ）. Phoenix Yili .2011:114.
For example, some people think that a rusty sickle is a symbol of fertility , But others think it represents destruction . Which view is correct ？ Neither is true . Unless the sickle is marked this or that , But it didn't , So it can't prove that any view is correct . The only objective and correct answer is ： A rusty sickle is a rusty sickle . Call it anything else , It's all changing the truth
（4） The strategy of observation , Called Cobra （COBRA）, Through this 5 A step , To reveal the hidden details :
Camouflaged（ False focus ）
One（ Do one thing at a time ）
Break（ sit back ）
Realign（ Adjust expectations ）
Ask（ Ask others to watch with you ）
02. analysis : Put the most important facts on the top
In art , Perspective refers to the perspective from which a work will actually be viewed . The artist will seriously consider how to choose the angle , And in many cases , The perspective is directly manipulated by the artist , So that those works can consciously and directly enter the eyes of the audience .
We need to analyze from every angle .
（1） Physical perspective .
“ Change the way you see things , What you see will change .” It's no exaggeration to say , As we watch , The angle we stand will greatly change the way we see things , therefore , It's important to get information from as many physical angles as possible 【 For example, looking at a painting or statue from different angles 】
（2） On-the-spot , Look at the real thing .
Instead of having “ Don't hit the south wall, don't turn around ” Think about the same thing with the same mentality , Why don't you get up and walk away , Use your observation skills in real life , meanwhile , Your critical thinking ability will be ignited , Perception will recover , So in many cases , The problems in your mind will be solved .
（3） Sensory perspective .
The more you let your senses work , This process becomes more and more automatic , And then you'll see , Other senses will also improve your viewing ability 【 Look, hear, etc 】
（4） The perspective of the mind .
When you want to share with others , Make sure you have a complete and comprehensive introduction to your world . To do that , Ask yourself a few simple questions ：
（5） New perspective . Like insight , Our perspective will also change , Not immutable . Many things can manipulate our perspective ： Time 、 State of mind 、 And new experiences that change our horizons . Some things that a person thinks today , Today's description of some things , It will be very different from the view of the future .
The more times we recall something , The more ： Or you'll remember more , Or it will reshape the memory of that time , Especially when it's about an emotional experience .
There is an unconscious system in our brain , When it comes across conflicting information , Will produce a story to reconcile them
[ beautiful ] Elize · Stenberg . Neural logic . Utopia .2018:238.
Why is this so important ？ Because the change of perspective will also bring about the change of observation . If we interview Matisse , Ask him 1914 What color is the sea in , He would say “ black ”—— He's not lying , Because for Matisse ,1914 Years of life and 9 Life was very different years ago . World War I just broke out , The German army invaded Matisse's hometown , His old and frail mother was trapped in the enemy position , Friends were conscripted , Brothers became prisoners of war , Although he wanted to join the army many times , But he was repeatedly rejected because of his age . The French expropriated his house in Paris as the headquarters , So he was exiled to the summer studio .
For us , The sea is blue , But for him , The sea is black . I emphasized this in the training of the sexual assault investigation team of the Peace Corps , I said,
The reason why victims change their real experience , Maybe just because over time , She will remember things beyond recognition .
Henry · Matisse ,《 The open window 》,1905
Henry · Matisse ,《 The French window of coriuer 》,1914
（6） From the perspective of priorities .
If we don't subconsciously decide which task to deal with first , The brain will make choices instead of us , Based on our built-in cognition and preferences
We can't assume that others have time 、 Have the will to 、 Have the ability to analyze a mountain of information from multiple channels . We need to prioritize this information , Or others will sort by themselves , And this sort may be wrong . We need to make sure that important information is not missed by others .
To help prioritize , We must first look at all available information in detail , And put the most important facts on the top . Only when we first collect all the information we can collect , To successfully prioritize . however , Once all the information is collected , We're going to screen them
“ Trigeminal questioning ”, Just ask yourself three questions , Ask these three questions to help organize information , And find the most important elements in any case ：
03. Express clearly : How to avoid failed communication
Artists know why they are artists , Not just because people see them like that , Or what qualifications or awards they have won . They are called artists because they can't help but want to create
Whether you finish a work （ A painting 、 A sculpture , Or any other work of art ） How simple it looks 、 It takes no effort , They all rely on a specific, almost standard process . Although the details of this process will vary from person to person , But these differences are only superficial , for instance , Although sculptors and photographers use different tools , But we must learn the best way to work , Is very skilled in using a hammer or operating a camera . These basic processes are ultimately the same , namely
Artists must graft ideas and media , Or combine the expression content with the expression method . In the same way, we will understand , No matter what we communicate , How to communicate , We can all pass the study plan 、 Practice and practice carefully , To create the best information
（1） Make a wise choice of words
We should pay attention to our words as painters look at their paintings ： They serve as a communication tool , It needs careful consideration , And you have to go through brain screening before you say it . For painters , The choice of a certain color is extremely important , So again , Before we talk , Think ahead about what kind of wording to use , It's like trying to make sure you're drawing an accurate picture .
A lot of times , Subjective words can be easily identified ： It's mixed with personal opinions , Not based on facts . However , There are also some words with subjective signals that have subtle effects , They will make the listener lose interest , Even worse is , If you are not careful, you will make the audience have opposing emotions , That is to say 《 Nonviolent Communication 》
（2） Think about your audience
Just like when we do observation exercises, we should collect as much information as possible , We should also consider the potential audience before speaking , From their point of view , Make sure the communication contains all the relevant information for them , At the same time, we should also translate our words into sentences that they can easily understand and accept .
（3） Specific practice
Take the sentence you wrote down , Find someone , Read it aloud to him . Don't show that man the picture , Use words to convey what you see to people who can't see the picture , It's a simple and valuable practice to express what you see in language .
To test your level of description of objective facts , Ask the audience to draw a picture according to your description . If your description doesn't contain enough information for the other person to copy the painting , that , return , Write another description , Make the message more accurate .
（4） The importance of pruning and cutting leaves ： Why is silence better than talking too much
A good communicator must be concise , They make every word of themselves valuable .
（5） Don't let the bad paint dry
When we admit our mistakes , And correct it as soon as it is found , People will be more tolerant and patient with us . Don't let the wrong sum kill , And don't let the dust stay in our wrong communication . We should correct it as quickly as possible
（6） Make sure the other person receives the message
In order to help our communication be accepted , We need to do these last steps in the process of transmitting information . This is the secret that communication is more acceptable , I call it
Three R： repeat （repeating）, Rename （renaming）, And rebuild （reframing）
first R： repeat （repeating）. If you feel uncomfortable letting the other person repeat what you said word for word , You can ask him to comment on what you say . such as
Ask each other , When you finish this task , Which step is the most difficult 、 The easiest or most complex .
the second R： Rename （renaming）. When we encounter obstacles in understanding , Just simply change the name , The problem may be solved , For example, the Avignon girl in Picasso
Third R： Rebuild （reframing）. If your message doesn't resonate with the audience , Then you need to try to reconstruct the way you express . For example, the begging language of the blind reads ： Today is a beautiful day , You can see , I can't see .
（7） Under pressure or when you have to do it , How to keep calm and communicate effectively .
The more uncomfortable things are expressed and faced positively , The better we'll be in this situation
Say what you see , Not what you think . This picture makes you feel uncomfortable , No problem ; You don't like it , It's not a problem ; It's just that you can't ignore it , Because it does exist , And it's right in front of you . Because we ignore those facts , Or choose not to believe what we see , To make bad things happen .【 A bit like the emperor's new clothes 】
Believe what you see . We must believe what we see , Even if this may require us to think of unimaginable situations , Or say something hard to say . You can't ignore the alarm signal , Because their appearance predicts something impossible for us
Wisdom is better than emotion .
Separating objective facts from subjective emotions is also the most important thing . When observing and evaluating , Separate facts from fiction , In the analysis section , Separate inference from opinion .
Keep going . repeat , Rename and rebuild .
Add a spoonful of sugar to the mixture .
If repeat 、 Renaming or rebuilding doesn't work , The other party still holds on , Until we find out who to blame , that , This is the case , Take the initiative to take responsibility . Try to say ：“ I'm sorry , There are communication mistakes between us / misunderstand / Things are not clear .” Some people , After hearing “ I'm sorry ” I won't quit the debate before , But you didn't say it was your fault , You're giving them a real concession , Because you get into this situation with them and misunderstand each other , It'll be worse than your voluntary apology .
04. To adapt to :
Overcome inherent prejudices
From a biological point of view , People are inherently biased , And Prejudice itself is not bad . But refuse to meet us 、 Sort out and overcome those based on untruth 、 It is unfair to others without prejudice , There will be problems
（1） Unconscious bias
Because our brain receives far more information than we can process , So there is a shortcut to thinking , Including a lot of things we've learned , It allows us to automatically prioritize and filter information . Unconscious prejudice is one of the shortcuts , Each of us has unconscious prejudices , They will quickly fill the gap for us , So our bodies can make slow 、 Fight or escape before thinking consciously .【 Neuroplasticity 】
（2） Experience bias
We also don't want to completely separate ourselves from our own experience , Because when we're looking for information , Personal experience is valuable , But we have to be careful , Don't let them completely deviate from what we observe .【 Hold the hammer. , Everything you see is a nail 】
Coping with prejudice 3 A rule :
Dare to recognize and abandon unfavorable prejudices
Don't take prejudice as fact , But use them to find the truth
Ask others to check when making a conclusion
（3） Subjective questions , An objective answer
Some situations don't seem so straightforward , There may also be no clear answer , But that doesn't mean we can't deal with them . When we face some problems 、 Events or challenges are vague , Morally ambiguous , Or in gray areas , Think of it as a subjective question , Then deal with it objectively .【 For example, the public relations problems of the company in case of emergencies 】
Gray areas because of scale 、 The importance and context vary , But they will appear both in the workplace and in personal experience .
Whatever the occasion , There are subjective reactions , Can only expand the negative impact , Make things more dangerous , Make the facts more blurred . We must deal objectively with , Even if the matter itself is subjective . To do so , Maybe we can't get rid of those difficult problems , But we can when things get into trouble , Minimize your risk .
As the example in the book , Johnson & Johnson's poison capsule time , The poisoning incident has never been solved , And led to several similar incidents in China . however , Instead of pursuing the unknown , It's better to give priority to “ Care about what you can care about ”, Recall drugs and other measures , As a result, it created a miracle of the company , Completely restored its market share , Make it one of the most trusted brands in the United States . How Johnson & Johnson did it ？ Is to deal with the facts objectively , Free from subjective factors .
just as 《 Liu run ·5 Minute business school 》 The crisis public relations mentioned
This pot is my back ： First of all, be honest .
A brand is a container , It contains the user's “ understand , Trust and preference ”, The more trust , The more valuable the brand is , Selling is saving money in the brand , The crisis is to spend money from the brand .“ The question is true ” After the four words were said, the public mood immediately reversed ,“ This pot is my back ” Our responsibility stopped the bleeding of the great artery of brand trust in time .
I'll correct this mistake ：
Give a sincere correction plan and tell the public ： I'll correct this mistake .
Let's go ：
The spread of the crisis on the Internet has exceeded the speed at which most companies deal with the crisis , So winning time is the key to crisis public relations . React quickly , It's very big . Apologize , I'll do it right away , Don't talk nonsense , Don't delay the fighter .
Each of us as long as we have better observation and expression skills , You can avoid a lot of losses , You can also see more opportunities , Better protect the people around us .
The more powerful a person is , The more you can use your abilities , Make yourself and the world around you better