History is not a girl dressed up -- a Book Review of the lament of Chernobyl
2022-03-29 02:48:56 【Knowledge hall】
2022 year 2 End of month , The Russian army went south from the Belarus border , Captured the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine , Draw people's attention back to 30 Nuclear power plant accident many years ago , People began to quarrel over the tragedy of that year again .
” Anyway, the Soviet Union can't speak , Now whatever people call the Soviet Union .”
“ Russia has taken back its own things , Now they are attacking the great Soviet people who participated in disaster relief in those years , If it weren't for them, the whole of Europe would be over .”
For a regime that has ended , Moreover, the regime that has been over for more than 30 years can not be decided , Is the sorrow of human history . For the and Chernobyl accident 、 And all kinds of stories and reactions after it happened , But it is actually recorded in human history .
About this disaster , Nobel Prize winner in literature , Belarusian writer alexeyevich once interviewed the witnesses at that time , Published an oral record of the victims 《 The cry of Chernobyl 》（Voices from Chernobyl, Another translation 《 Chernobyl memorial service 》《 Memories of Chernobyl 》 etc. ）. The book is still being updated , When the author collects new oral content, it will be added to the book .
I think , From these first-hand memories , You can see the memory of the local people , Respond to today's comments about the Chernobyl disaster and beyond .
Having said these two points , I think we can from the following aspects , combination 《 The cry of Chernobyl 》 Talk about the situation at that time “ Chernobyl people ” How to deal with this major nuclear accident .
01 Did the Soviet government hide the truth of the accident ？
The answer is ： There is no complete concealment of the accident itself , The harm caused by the accident has been trying to hide .
The accident happened in 1986 year 4 month 26 Early morning （ Is the title of this article ）, According to the records, the high-level reaction of the Soviet Union at that time , They really didn't know how much had happened at first , But to 4 month 27 Noon , Started evacuating the people from the nearby town of pripiaj . It should be said that it was done well under the conditions at that time . But the Soviet government really did not inform its neighbors at the first time , No comprehensive information has been released , until 4 month 28 Japan , The third day after the accident , As Sweden's nuclear power plant found an increase in the emissivity of the atmosphere , After asking around, I found that others were all right , I suspect it's the Soviet problem , At this point, the problem was fully exposed .
There is a problem with the internal system of the Soviet Union , A person facing such a major safety accident can't be right 、 Timely response system , Even now someone is defending it , Actually “ Only a few thousand people died as a result of the accident ”, You have to face it ？
The Central Committee of the Soviet Union at that time , All the way to the State Party committee where the accident occurred , All agreed to ： No panic is allowed . For this reason , Strictly review all reports related to the accident . This leads to a series of terrible concealment of the truth ：
The personnel involved in the cleaning will wear a radiation recorder , But turn in the recorder after work , The specific radiation value is listed in military secrets ……
All the books about radiation in the Soviet library have disappeared ……
Personnel involved in the clean-up , At the end of the mission, the doctor needs to issue a certificate of the amount of radiation received , The calculation method of that number is as follows ： Measure the radiation in a tent where they live （ Of course, lower than the harmful value ）, Then multiply by the time they work outside ……
There will be an old lady milking at Chernobyl on TV , Then the radiometer tested the milk , And the radiation value of other foods , The result is of course normal , But that device can only be used to measure the environment , Can't measure food ……
There are still a lot of it , But they are all ridiculous and terrible operation methods . Later people reflected , This is the default state of people in Soviet society ： Deceive yourself . People don't want others to know the truth , I don't want to know the truth , The truth in the Soviet Union represents danger .
Of course, there will still be smart people , When the Central Committee of the Soviet Union sent someone to Chernobyl , They bring their own food 、 water , The inspection was done in the car ; They wear special masks （ Much better than the front-line cleaners ）, On the outskirts of Minsk, there are livestock specially provided for executives of the Republic of Belarus , Keep... In a greenhouse . And although they tell everyone every day that it's safe , But in fact, I and my family have been taking iodine tablets （2011 After the Fukushima nuclear power plant leak in, people robbed salt to replenish iodine , Although it's useless ）, Iodine tablets can make people's thyroid absorb enough iodine , Radioactive iodine will not be absorbed by the human body .
It's a pretty operation
02 How did people finish cleaning up around Chernobyl
HBO Two years ago 《 Chernobyl 》 In the mini show , It really reflects the operation method of these works .
Shoot animals left in the radiation area , Including pets ;
Use a helicopter to put fire extinguishing materials into the exposed nuclear fuel , And in order to complete the launch , The helicopter pilot will open the glass , Aim directly and visually , Equivalent to direct face and radiation , These are real heroes ……
Because the robot can't bear the damage of nuclear radiation to the circuit , Only in the end “ Green robot ” To clean the roof of the building next to nuclear fuel . Green robots are soldiers , Call them in the TV series “ Biological robots ”. They have very little protection , Only lead aprons , Shoes are ordinary artificial leather boots , Working on the roof 90 second , Throw the graphite from the reactor blown out of the roof into the reactor , Then withdraw , take 100 Ruble retired , Oh , And a medal . These people , And a great hero ……
To prevent a nuclear explosion , Drain the cold water from the bottom of the reactor and recruit volunteers … But it's not just Engineers , And ordinary soldiers . They took 7000 Rouble , And medals , Nothing else . They are all great heroes .
And recruiting miners , Tunnel the bottom of the reactor , It's true ; These miners are from Moscow 、 Kiev and Dnepropetrovsk , There are hundreds of roentgens of radiation in the tunnel ,50 High temperature , These miners can only dig naked .
In the TV series, a female scientist scrapes dust from the glass to check the radioactivity 、 Call to ask where the accident happened , Its prototype was the director of the laboratory of the Institute of nuclear energy of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences at that time , Walianjing · Alexeyevich · Borisevic .
03 Why did the Soviet army and people participate in this clean-up , Why not resist ？
The answer to this question is obvious ： The professional ethics of soldiers and the patriotic education of the Soviet Union .
I don't want to call this “ Brainwashing ”, It's a terrible word . A person , Be devoted to one's duty , Give everything to protect the interests of others , What's wrong with this ？ If the same accident happens anywhere else , There are also a group of people who will do it for these two reasons .
Is it certain that only those hot lines join the party 、 Can the bridge section holding high the red flag express this sentiment ？ In fact, people at that time knew that there was an accident here , In the later stage, everyone is afraid . But they still went .
“ I'm a soldier , You should obey orders …… We swore for this …… But that's not the only reason …… We also have a hero complex . What we receive is such an education …… It's been instilled since I was a student . And education from parents , Speeches by political workers , radio 、 TV publicity . Different people have different starting points ： Some people want to be interviewed , Newspaper ; Others see it as work ; There's a third kind of person …… I met them , They lived with passion , Feel like you're doing heroic work , Is making history .”
“ In terms of our culture , It's selfish to think about yourself so . It's a mental weakness .”
But reading this book , It makes me feel radiation on my face all the time , It's always goose bumps . Because there could have been no accident at the nuclear power plant , They could have been better protected , Someone could have told them more about the dangers they might face .
They are all heroes ……
04 The people involved in the clean-up are stupid and don't know the harm of nuclear radiation ？ Nuclear leakage is dangerous , This is common sense ？
The answer is ： Many people who took part in cleaning up and fighting the fire in the early stage , I really don't know the danger of nuclear power plant leakage .
The night the nuclear power plant just exploded , In the small town of pripiaj near the power station , There are a lot of people watching the fire at the nuclear power plant , It's only three kilometers away , Then people at this distance were evacuated . They live in the family area of the nuclear power plant , Do you say they understand the danger of nuclear leakage ？
At the beginning , People involved in disaster relief , Thought it was just a fire , For example, the printing room of the nuclear power plant caught fire , No one thought it was a nuclear power plant explosion ;
Secondly, as mentioned above , The Soviet Union systematically concealed the truth , Don't let the people involved in the clean-up know how serious the harm is ;
Last , A lot of people say , After more than 40 years of cold war , They are trained to prevent nuclear radiation after atomic bomb explosion , It's impossible not to know how powerful nuclear radiation is .
According to alexeyevich , At that time, ordinary people in the Soviet Union only participated in civil defense training , Know some old knowledge , I don't know how to apply it at all ; What about the Soviet bureaucrats , Most of them mobilize the masses in Party schools , Know nothing about science ; The force commander doesn't know what's going on .
such as , The milk around the nuclear radiation area will have radioactive cesium , This knowledge has never been taught , Still milking 、 Deliver milk 、 Sell milk ……
People all over Europe are taking medicine to prevent disasters , My father was in Federal Germany , He said that German aunts know that they can't eat meat and vegetables , Eat boiled potatoes every day （ Potatoes need to be boiled several times , Pour out the water every time ）. When the Soviets met the heavily armed western reporters , Short sleeves are still missing 、 Sandals 、 dress . As ordinary people , Under a system of deliberate concealment , It's impossible to know how to apply that common sense .
I recommend you to see HBO The TV play , I also recommend reading some peripheral books （ There is also an English Adam · Written by Higginbotham 《 Midnight at Chernobyl 》）, The common disaster for mankind , Deepen our understanding , Don't be fooled by some people sitting on the cold dead Soviet bureaucracy .
Podcast There is an interview with the creator of the program , Call Chernobyl, Capable friends can also listen to .
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